Why in China do not like the Japanese
The parade in Beijing for the Chinese marks the 70th anniversary of the end of their own war, which the Europeans barely know. It began two years before the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. The names of the greatest battles of this war and the 24 million dead in it constitute a powerful layer of the historical memory of the citizens of China. It is this memory that underlies the hatred that many Chinese still feel towards the Japanese.
Until the last quarter of the 19th century, the Japanese were only Eastern barbarians, who absorbed the wisdom of the Middle Kingdom: writing, religion, architecture. But then the situation changed: while China lost to Europeans after war, more and more locked up in isolation, Japan westernized and borrowed the achievements of European civilization. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 ended in a humiliating defeat of the Middle Kingdom.
After that, the countries completely reversed their roles, and Chinese intellectuals, including the future “father of the nation” Sun Yat-sen, were sent to Japan to study.Established in Tokyo, the Tunmenhoi organization became the driving force behind the 1912 Xinhai Revolution. However, anarchy and civil war soon began in China, and in 1931 the Japanese seized Manchuria almost without resistance, creating the puppet state of Manchuku there. By 1936, the militarists in the Japanese leadership finally gained the upper hand, and the following year, Japan declared war on China.
It was the Second World War that shaped the current attitude of the Chinese to the neighbor across the eastern seas. The fact that the Japanese troops worked in the country from 1937 to 1945 is called genocide in China. According to Chinese historians, about seven million combatants and more than seventeen million civilians have fallen victim to the Japanese.
One of the worst episodes was the famous Nanjing Massacre. After three months of fighting for Shanghai, the Japanese moved to the then capital of China, Nanjing. The atrocities began on the way: while the Japanese troops marched into a defenseless city, two Japanese officers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda, competed in the killings of unarmed Chinese prisoners. The duel was excitedly commented on by Japanese newspapers.Initially, the dispute was about who would quickly kill 100 people with the sword. The winner could not be established and an additional round was required - kill 150 people for a speed.
The fact that the Japanese staged a few days later in Nanking was more like a cold-blooded and systematic extermination: all men of military age were taken outside the city limits and killed, after which the massacre began in the city itself. The Japanese soldiers didn’t even spend the ammunition - they would cut the heads of the unarmed civilians with swords, pinch them with bayonets, poison them with dogs, pierce their eyes and rip their bellies. The exact number of victims is still not known - according to Chinese data, it ranges from 200 to 500 thousand people. According to eyewitnesses, according to the Yangtze, it was impossible to properly sail on a boat - tens of thousands of corpses interfered. Between 20 and 80 thousand women were raped, including girls, pregnant women, old women and even nuns. Men have also been sexually abused.
Chemistry and death
It was in China that the famous Department for the Prevention of Epidemics and Water Purification and its special research teams worked, among other things, engaged in, among other things, secret research in the field of chemical and biological weapons.Japanese military doctors deliberately infected people with cholera, smallpox, typhus, bubonic plague, poisoned them with gases, tested drugs for them, frozen them and subsequently amputated the limbs and tortured them to test their reaction to pain.
Experimental materials for research by progressive Japanese scientists were local residents and captured Chinese soldiers. The servicemen of the Chinese army who were captured by the Japanese had practically no chance of survival - suffice it to say that after the capitulation of Japan, only 56 Chinese prisoners of war were released from the camps.
The Japanese applied this knowledge in practice, dropping ceramic bombs filled with infected fleas onto Chinese positions. But in general, Japanese aircraft preferred large-scale bombing with conventional and incendiary bombs. From February 1938 to August 1943, Japanese aircraft conducted more than five thousand raids on major Chinese cities.
The Japanese ground troops were guided by the strategy of General Okamura, dubbed "Sanko Sakusen" - "three all": burn everything, kill everything, rob everything.The Japanese took the whole crop, destroyed the villages and drove the Chinese to the demining work, ruthlessly cracking down on all disloyal or suspicious. It is believed that more than two and a half million people became victims of the strategy of Okamura. In the rear of the Japanese soldiers served the so-called "station of consolation" - the soldiers' brothels, where they sent, often forcibly, Chinese women. In 1942, 280 such "stations" operated in China.
After Japan capitulated, according to the verdict of the international tribunal, 920 people were executed, another 475 received a life sentence. But there was nothing like denazification that the Allies conducted in Germany in Japan. Thus, Emperor Hirohito, whose signature stood under most criminal orders, was deleted from among the defendants, and many war criminals received short sentences.
Japanese soldiers with Chinese teenagers before execution
Worship of criminals
After the war, relations between Tokyo and Beijing were built according to the formula “Zheng Len, Jin Je” (“cold in politics, hot in economics”): Japanese Prime Minister Sigiru Yoshida, author of the foreign policy doctrine,in private conversations, he said that he didn’t care what the Chinese would be like - even if they were red or green, if only they would buy Japanese goods. In 1973, the countries restored diplomatic relations, and Japanese investment flowed into the PRC.
Nonetheless, irritation flared under the external friendship. Beijing’s indignation was mainly caused by two things: the campaigns of the Japanese leaders to the Yasukuni Shinto temple, where they worship the souls of the soldiers who died for Japan, and the rewriting of school books.
In 1978, Japanese authorities transferred the ashes of fourteen major Japanese war criminals to the temple grounds. Since then, anyone who came to the Yasukuni temple to honor the memory of the dead soldiers, at the same time, showed his respect for those who organized the massacres. The visits of Japanese leaders to the temple were viewed by Beijing as knowingly unfriendly actions.
The Chinese were outraged by the stubborn unwillingness of Tokyo to admit their war crimes, expressed in the rewriting of textbooks in which Japanese atrocities on Chinese territory were hushed up or justified. Thus, according to Japanese authors, there was no massacre in Nanjing: the city was captured almost bloodless, only 20 thousand people died - inevitable victims in the capture of a fortified point.Photos are fake, and witnesses are lying.
As a result, an insoluble contradiction arises: at the official level, Tokyo for decades declared regret over the events of that war, while at the same time, the Japanese courts refused to allow Chinese citizens to consider compensation cases. This caused understandable irritation of Beijing. The Japanese, not wanting to quarrel with a neighbor, extinguished Chinese discontent with new and new loans, the total amount of which by 2010 had reached $ 30 billion.
Memorial Festival at Yasukuni Shrine
Road to Yasukuni Temple
By 1990, the situation had changed. China experienced rapid economic growth and began to claim the role of a regional superpower, while in Japan began a period of economic decline and a series of political crises. In addition, a new generation of Japanese leaders came to power in the Land of the Rising Sun and wanted to revise the results of WWII - the Japanese were tired of paying and repenting. The Chinese are scared. They were suspicious of the attempts of Japan to strengthen the self-defense forces and eventually turn them into a normal army, accusing Tokyo of militarism.
The leapfrog of the Japanese prime ministers led to the fact that the country's policy toward China was constantly changing.For example, Dzhyuntyro Koizumi defiantly went to the Yasukuni temple, although he apologized for the crimes of the Japanese troops, while his successor and party comrade Shinzo Abe temporarily refused visits, while encouraging revisionism in history books. Yasuo Fukuda did the same, and Yoshikikho Noda, on the contrary, said that the Japanese military were not criminals, and visiting the temple was just a tribute to those who died for the country.
An indicator of growing tension between the two countries was the famous anti-Japanese pogrom of 2005: after Prime Minister Koizumi visited the Yasukuni temple, and in Japan a new textbook appeared in small numbers, where the actions of the Japanese military in China, Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin and Guangzhou were healed anti-japanese stocks Authorities allowed popular anger to spill onto the streets, and the protests were stopped only a few days later, when Japanese businessmen suffered significant damage.
Time of young patriots
It is indicative that the main driving force of the protests was the youth - the children of those Chinese who had collaborated with the Japanese all the previous years. It turned out that the current Chinese youth in terms of nationalself-consciousness will give odds to their fathers and grandfathers.
No wonder: even in schools, children are told about the atrocities of the Japanese. In Beijing, there is a war museum with Japan, where hundreds and thousands of schoolchildren and students come every day to see scary photos of Japanese atrocities — women raped, piles of children's corpses, Chinese men with punctured eyes and cut guts.
Chinese cinema is not far behind: in 2005, for example, an animated film “Little Soldier Zhang Ha” appeared on the screen, telling the story of a 12-year-old boy trying to survive in the crucible of the war with the Japanese. In the story, the grandmother of little Zhang is killed by the Japanese military, and he joins the communist underground workers. In the final of the film, he blows up the Japanese echelon, and for this he gets a gun from the commander to kill even more Japanese. There is not a single positive Japanese character in the film. In the credits it was reported that the tape was based on the real story of the boy Yan Syufeng.
At the same time, the black comedy “Devils at the Door,” which won the Grand Prix at Cannes, was banned in China, including becausethat the film establishes a friendship between Chinese peasants and a captured Japanese soldier, officials said it could create a wrong impression about the behavior of the Chinese during the war years.
Anti-Japanese demonstration in Sichuan province in 2012
The Japanese themselves are contributing to inciting hatred. Thus, Tokyo announced the sale of the disputed Senkaku Islands to a private individual right before the 18th CPC Congress in 2012, at the time of the rise of Chinese national identity, which was predictably spit in the face of the whole nation and led to new pogroms. And even sincere apologies of individuals of the state cannot shake this relationship. Former Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama said: “As a Japanese citizen, I feel it is my duty to apologize; even if only one Chinese civilian was brutally murdered by Japanese soldiers, such an act has no excuse just because it happened during the war. ” Thousands of user reviews about the content immediately appeared on the Weibo social network: the Japanese lie all the time, they cannot be trusted, and give them only a chance - and they will repeat again in China all the atrocities that were committed during the war.In fact, in the minds of many Chinese, the Japanese are dehumanized - exactly the same as the Japanese at one time dehumanized the Chinese.
In the West, this Chinese feature is perceived with a certain bewilderment, calling the lessons of history in Chinese schools "exercises in national humiliation." Many experts believe that the CCP purposely stirs up hatred of the Japanese in order to rally the nation and strengthen its position. Given the 24 million dead, the Nanjing massacre, the soldiers' brothels, special detachments and carpet bombing, such arguments seem implausible.