What turns the Omsk refinery
Omsk as if consists of two cities: in fact, Omsk itself and the oil and gas city - a local refinery. Belonging to Gazprom Neft, this is the largest oil refinery in Russia, built back in the 1950s. Naturally, 60 years for the plant is a gigantic term and at the Omsk refinery the years are felt fully: the enterprise is not at all what it once was.
So what is Omsk oil and gas turning now?
First, a little history.
The first post-war years, the USSR gradually began to recover from the war, the industry’s flywheel, launched in wartime, revolves at full capacity, the country needs new plants that would meet the needs of the national economy and now the peaceful industry.
The war gave a huge influx of equipment in the USSR, which after the Victory en masse enters the very national economy and the country needs several times more fuel and fuel than before 1941. In this regard, the USSR makes a decision to build a large oil refinery that would fully meet the needs of industry in Western Siberia and the Urals, as well as other areas of the country.
The country's leadership took into account military experience: the refinery needs to be built as far as possible from the borders, so that in the event of another war, the plant would be as difficult to reach for the bombers of a potential enemy. So Omsk became the very city indicated by the drug dealers, and in 1949 the construction of the best in the country, the Omsk Oil Refinery, began.
Construction was carried out for almost 5 years, and over 20 thousand workers participated in the construction of the first production units. September 1, 1955 Omsk refinery was put into operation. Oil for the new enterprise was supplied by rail from Bashkiria. In the first year, the plant processed almost a quarter of a million tons of oil.
Especially for a large construction site in Omsk, the town of Oil Workers was created: next to the oil refinery, urban neighborhoods appeared with comfortable housing for workers, kindergartens and schools, health care and cultural institutions.
At first the plant produced only motor fuel, then mastered the production of lubricants and gradually expanded the product range.
In the mid-70s, the plant becomes the largest oil refining enterprise in the country, processing 24 million tons of oil. In 1978, a record processing capacity of 29 million tons of raw materials was reached.
In 1983, the first domestic benzene, orthoxylene and para-xylene used in petrochemistry were obtained at the Omsk Refinery. In subsequent years, the range of products expanded (now more than 50 types), with particular attention being paid to increasing the depth of oil refining - one of the main indicators of the quality and efficiency of the enterprise.
For several decades, the plant incredibly rang out in size: new installations were built next to the existing ones and by the mid-90s the Omsk Refinery was a giant densely built-up city of dozens of distilleries, hundreds of columns and pipes going high into the sky. Here, as in the modern metropolis, there was literally no place for an apple to fall. Just imagine - the territory of the plant - 1.2 thousand hectares, it's like the area of 27 Vaticans, for example. Therefore, it is not surprising that the OIPP has its own bus route network.
And then everything went in the opposite direction: if you compare a black and white photo of that time and a photo that I took a few days ago, the difference is visible to the naked eye. There are no many buildings, a number of giant installations and multimeter pipes have disappeared, and the territories where they once stood are completely gaping with green spots. How so? What happens to the plant?
I will say right away, I did not see trash and devastation here. At the Omsk plant, there really is a constant dismantling of buildings and installations that are morally and physically obsolete, platforms that are not being rebuilt are really being released.
Today's ONPZ is really not as densely built as it was in the 70s-90s. But all this is not because the plant is falling apart, but on the contrary: for many years now there has been a constant modernization of it and completely new modern installations appear, some of which alone replace an entire “quarter” of equipment of the previous generation.
As a result, today Omsk oil and gas is not only the largest oil refinery in Russia, but also the most modern one. Which, as at the very beginning, is the basis of Russia's fuel security. It produces every eighth liter of gasoline, every seventh liter of aviation kerosene and every 12th liter of diesel fuel in the country.
Large-scale modernization began at the Omsk refinery 10 years ago, two years after it came under the control of Gazprom Neft. The volume of investments exceeds 300 billion rubles. The fact that the company invests in the plant, and does not suck all the juice out of it, can be seen immediately from the checkpoint.
Look: history and modernity are opposite each other - the building of the plant management, built at the dawn of the existence of the Omsk Refinery and a completely new household building directly opposite it. By the way, it’s very cool that a beautiful vintage building was not modified to a single corporate style, but left in all its glory, after a rather expensive restoration.
Best of all, a huge plant can be seen from high points, for example, from rectification columns. From here, one can assess the scale of the enterprise as a whole, and see where work is currently underway to modernize and replace giant installations, and where such work is just ahead, and the freed-up areas greening in fresh grass.
In the photo, the newest unit of the primary oil refining complex, processing a quarter of all the raw materials supplied to the plant! Here are the components for the production of gasoline Euro-5.
It is at the top of her column that we will climb to see the Omsk refinery from above.
From the top point you can clearly see everything that happens in the enterprise.
The existing installations, new large-scale constructions are visible.
Here comes the installation of a new unit for the primary processing of oil - in simple terms, a complex, where the oil will first be separated at atmospheric and then under reduced pressure.All this is to better extract the necessary parts of which produce fuel. And again. After commissioning of the new complex, seven units of primary oil refining of the previous generation will be withdrawn from the technological chain of the Omsk Refinery.
Here is the gas fractionation unit. It was recently modernized. It is designed to separate the mixture of gases into individual components, some of which is directed to the production of gasoline.
Hydrotreating unit for catalytic cracking gasoline and diesel fuel. It is here that the final fuel cleaning to the level of compliance with Euro-5 standards takes place.
At the hydrotreating unit of catalytic cracking gasoline and diesel, fuel is cleaned up to Euro-5 standards.
Hundreds of kilometers of pipelines that transport oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil, tar, gas, etc. between installations and platforms.
Right now the newest installation for the production of hydrogen is being installed, which is used for the final cleaning of the fuel. It will unload the existing installations and stabilize the operation of hydrotreating units for the production of motor fuels of the fifth class.
In fact, today the main task of any oil refinery is not to increase processing volumes, but to maximize its depth. What really determines efficiency is a figure approaching 100%.
For this purpose, and is constantly upgrading, there are all these installations and complexes. At the Omsk refinery, the refining depth today is 90.6%, and this is one of the highest rates in Russia.
By the way, the Omsk refinery uses one of the unique technologies for Russian plants, which replaced the traditional for oil refineries and chemical enterprises. The fact is that it is impossible to do without torches at such enterprises, since to ensure the safety of production, they allow to burn the excess gases that are formed in the process of oil refining.
At the Omsk plant, this process occurs without harming the atmosphere, here in this flare plant of a closed type. No smoke, low noise, simple and reliable control system. You are now a little surprised, but only thanks to this closed torch, it was possible to reduce emissions into the atmosphere by 72%!
And here are the green spots that appear in the process of modernization and which, thanks to the improvement of technology and equipment, becomes more and more every year.
By the way, I generally think that in their place it is necessary to equip green areas, plant an arboretum, equip a pond and run into it swans with ducks. Excellent would be a recreation area in the middle of the oil city. And from her on bicycles that are issued to employees for movement through the enterprise, you can get to the interactive gym with outdoor and wall-mounted fitness installations that turn training into a game.
It is worth looking into the united operator room. Here, in general, all the latest technology.
All control of the plant is carried out from the spacious control room, hung with dozens of screens and monitors. In addition, each unit has its own control room, located in explosion-proof bunker-type rooms, where engineers control all stages of the refining process.
Omsk Oil Refinery today is not for nothing called the most modern oil refinery in Russia.This is not only and maybe not even so much in all these columns and installations, but in the automation and intelligent control systems of all this gigantic city. They even use a special term: smart factory. He is really smart.
Honestly speaking, looking at the size of the enterprise, I cannot imagine how all this economy functioned in those years when there were not so many technologies and electronics that allow controlling all processes using sensors, computer programs and complex IT solutions. from banal leaks and ending with the finest tuning behavior of each device, valve or valve.
By the way, what is interesting is that most of the IT solutions for “growing up” a smart plant are created right here: a few hundred meters from the factory entrance there is a small building in which the Technopark is located. Here, they invent, assemble and test new equipment, develop software for it for use at the Omsk refinery and other enterprises of Gazprom Neft.
Full digitization of the plant is impossible without a full three-dimensional modeling of every corner of it.And if all new objects and installations are initially designed with the help of modern virtual systems and complexes, then the existing installations need to be digitized and modeled in place. And these processes here, too, have learned to do, which is generally amazing. So even today weaving of pipes and structures twenty years ago can be unfolded and opened in any plane, at any point and look inside anything ...
Here it is, Omsk oil and gas ...
And when you get out of Technopark, at some point you realize that you have completely broken the idea of a refinery.