What is a hybrid war? The concept and tactics of the hybrid war
Of course, most adults understand,which means the word "war", there is no need to explain anything. However, more recently, a new synthesized term "hybrid war" has appeared on hearing, the predicate (determinant) of which significantly rethinks the customary concept of war. The concept of the integrity of this concept is a subject for reflection by military figures, political scientists, analysts.
Let's look at what a hybrid war is likeappeared this phrase, what is the meaning and content embedded in it and what is its relevance. At the same time, we use common sense, world experience and reflections of respected figures in Russian science.
Hybrid war, concept
As is known, the military strategy includes the followingtypes of wars: small wars, ordinary wars, regional wars. But all these varieties refer to phenomena when the armed forces of one side oppose the armed forces of the other side.
In such wars, biological,nuclear, chemical and other types of weapons that are not traditional, but, as a rule, in standard military clashes, standard weapons are used or, as it is called in the West, "lethal weapons", which are primarily intended for the death of soldiers and the extermination of the country's military forces .
There is also the term "symmetric war"a phenomenon that signifies a war of armed forces leading an aggressive policy with various potential adversaries, which subsequently become real. A good example is the Afghan war led by the Soviet Union, and the Afghan war, which is still taking place in the country.
It is possible to come to a conclusion, considering concepthybrid war, that this is a kind of war that unites a wide range of influences produced by the enemy with the use of both military and irregular formations, in which civilian components also take part. In the writings of military experts, the term "war of controlled chaos" comes close to this term.
A wide spread today also receivesthe term "hybrid threats", which defines threats emanating from the enemy, capable at the same time of using traditional and non-traditional tools for the purposes necessary to achieve.
Hybrid war: what is it?
Traditional understanding of what is classicalwar, is formed in our civic consciousness by education and education, which always had a patriotic and historical orientation. We represent the war as a process of confrontation between the two sides on different sides of the front. The enemy invades our land, we win it back and continue to live on.
However, now there are and are being implementedNew types of war as an armed confrontation between countries. What does hybrid war mean? This confrontation arose as a result of technological development, the technical growth of the level of defensive instruments, offensive weapons, in other words, counter-technology.
At the same time, the objectives fordefeat. They are no longer the loss of life of soldiers and the destruction of material objects. Here, the most important goals are to influence the mass consciousness of the society, the expert judgments of the persons responsible for making important state decisions, including congressmen, ministers, deputies, presidents, when certain theories are being suggested to them, instilling value positions that motivate them to perform certain actions. Such a confrontation is also a state confrontation.
What is a hybrid war? This means that there is also an armed confrontation, just as a weapon, in addition to traditional weapons, there are also special technologies, information, technical and global network devices.
Primary source of the concept
We know that the word "hybrid" means somea newly produced product, arising as a result of the crossing of different types of this product. Thus, a hybrid war may not have the obvious features of an armed conflict, but it is nevertheless nothing more than a war.
Initially, the term "hybrid form", "hybrid"were used in relation to political organizations. That is, it was meant that the organizations, not being among the political, are responsible for the implementation of precisely political functions.
For example, in the literature there is a reference toorganized groups of fans of the football club "Milan", founded by Berlusconi. On the one hand, they were just the interests of fans of Milan, on the other - actively supported the political activities of Berlusconi, were a powerful force for the solution of his political tasks.
Note that in the USSR there was a similar formatan organization formed during the perestroika period, representing itself at the beginning of its activity, as an opposition environmental movement. At first glance, it was aimed at maintaining and protecting the environment, but over time it manifested its political underpinnings aimed at destabilizing the social situation in the country.
It is difficult to determine when the first occurreda hybrid war, and in general, whether there was a similar fact earlier in history. It is clear that a certain circle of people benefits from the use of this formulation in modern life.
Interpretation may be different
Distribution and the increased use of the concept"Hybrid war" is a very natural phenomenon. It is important to note that initially, when the term was just beginning to enter into circulation, it was not applied at all to Russia, and its content seemed completely different. Then, applying this concept, it meant that it meant the combination of a classical war with elements of terrorism, partisan and cyberwar, that is, completely different components. In particular, they referred to the activities of "Hezbollah", carried out during the Lebanon war and other regional conflicts. She did not participate actively in the war, but used insurgents, partisans and so on.
If you look into the distant past, you canto discover many historical examples that describe similar phenomena, for example, the so-called "Scythian war". Therefore, it is not necessary to refer the phenomenon of hybrid war to a category that is fundamentally new in nature and current. However, his current interpretation differs significantly from the one that existed before.
A new understanding of the question of what a hybridwar, was born of interested persons in relation to Russia in connection with the events of 2014, which occurred in Ukraine. In the press, several articles appeared that Russia is conducting hybrid wars around the world. Turning to the information published by the agency "Russia Today", it can be found that our country allegedly appears to the public as a global aggressor, using propaganda tools, cybernters and much more, becoming a threat of a planetary scale for preserving the world order. In this "magical" way, all military events taking place in the world can be signed under Russia's hybrid wars, which will make it a convenient and justified target for all ill-wishers.
Look at the West
So, consider the system of views onhybrid wars abroad. It's no secret that there are official instructions describing the strategy and actions of the military command in situations like the hybrid war. For example, the "white book" commanders of special operations of the ground forces of the United States of America, which is freely available to users of the "global network", entitled "Counteraction to the unconventional war." It contains a separate concept with the symbolic title "Winning in a complex world".
In this context, a hybridwar, that this is a war in which real military steps imply primarily implicit, secret, but typical military actions, in the course of which the hostile side attacks the regular army and (or) the enemy's state structures. Attack occurs at the expense of separatists and local rebels, which are supported by finances and weapons from abroad and certain internal structures: organized crime, pseudo-religious and nationalist organizations, oligarchs.
In the same documents, America and NATO containan indication that the armed forces of friendly countries play a fundamental role in successfully confronting hybrid wars during the mid and final stages of waging such wars, together with the unification of their intelligence agencies and governments. All this should take place within the framework of a "comprehensive intergovernmental, interdepartmental and international strategy".
Reincarnation into reality
Studying military doctrines of the USA, it is possible to draw a conclusion,that in the event of the emergence of hybrid wars, the conflict between the two countries is simultaneously joined by other states. Their actions consist of "providing comprehensive assistance to the insurgents in the recruitment of supporters, their logistical support, training, impact on the social sphere and the economy, coordination of diplomatic actions and the conduct of certain military operations." It is not difficult to notice that all these events, without any exception, are taking place today in Ukraine under the undisguised leadership of the United States. At the same time, it is customary to make reference that it is Putin's hybrid war against the sovereignty of Ukraine.
Thus, we can conclude that the Westknows the scheme of kindling of hybrid wars, and the very term came to us from there. The first tests were conducted in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine. Now Western political statements ascribe to Russia a hybrid war with Ukraine. They lead a lot of their own objective arguments, which are suitable for their definition of what a hybrid war is. Note that this behavior America already demonstrated to the world 30 years ago, when the contingent of the Soviet Union was in Afghanistan. A softer and intermediate form of hybrid wars is the so-called "color" revolutions that are already well known to the world.
The essence of what is happening
From the foregoing, it can be understood thatthe emergence of the phrase "hybrid war" has a sufficient background, consisting in improving the methods and varieties of state confrontation. This concept reflects the existing realities of the application of the instruments of struggle and the latest achievements in the field of country rivalry.
To clearly understand what a hybrid war is,we give this term the following definition. This is a kind of military confrontation of individual states that involves special forces and special services, guerrilla and hired forces, terrorist attacks, protest riots in an armed conflict, except for or instead of a regular army. At the same time, the main goal is more often not the occupation and appropriation of the territory, but the change in the political regime or the foundations of state policy in the country under attack.
The meaning of the final part of the definition is thatthe traditional goals of the war, such as the seizure of material values, natural resources, territories, treasuries, gold, and so on, have not sunk into oblivion. Simply aggressive aggressive armed struggle has acquired other outlines, and its goals are now achieved differently. The tactics of the hybrid war lead to bringing the political regime of the attacked state to the state of desuverified, puppet, easily managed aggressively attacking the country, and then all decisions will be made in its favor.
The Cold War with the USSR
We all know how the Cold War was going onbetween the USSR and the US with its allies. And we all need to understand, although this is rarely said out loud, that in this war there is a winner and a defeated one. Unfortunately, our country was just defeated. The USSR is dismembered, Russia is pumping various kinds of resources abroad, the so-called victorious countries. The consumer's ratio of these countries or, to be more precise, global countries-parasites, is much larger than one. Such states make a minimal contribution to the world balance, producing almost nothing, and consuming much more goods and resources.
It is not difficult to see that Russia's position in the worldbalance leaves much to be desired. The consumer ratio in our state is much less than one. In other words, we produce more and more products in favor of the world community than we consume in Russia itself.
In the Cold War, there is also a certainconcept of a hybrid war. Her result demonstrated that the conduct of a "hot" war is not necessarily to achieve the goals, which, for example, was staged by Adolf Hitler. He did not manage to achieve his own, unlike the West. Thus, there is definitely a clear similarity between the classical war, the Cold War and the hybrid war. The common goal of all these interstate conflicts is to take possession of the good of the enemy country, to defeat it and make it manageable.
What do we see today?
Now everything happens thatmany years of Russian history took place. If we rephrase the Russian classic Aksakov IS, then we can say that if the question of love for power and Russia's desire to start a war are raised, then one must understand: some Western or Western European countries are prepared to shamelessly capture someone else's land.
Today it is obvious that the term "hybrid war"is used against our country. It is also obvious that this term was put into use and is surrounded by universal attention in order to expose Russia as an aggressor that incites war. However, under cover of all this "political fog" absolutely identical actions are taking place on the part of Western countries. It may seem that neither Americans nor English are involved in the war, but military instructors, various "private" armies, and so on are constantly present on the territory of Ukraine. They do not seem to be at war, but they take a direct part in the war.
Against the background of current events, it becomes urgentsay that a hybrid war against Russia is planned and is entering its initial stage by Western states. There is a comprehensive pressure on our state, implicit involvement in the international conflict, an aggressive, purposeful impact on the economic and social balance.
Resistance to Western provocation
It is easy enough to understand by what meansa hybrid war between NATO and Russia is being prepared. Visiting the essence of this term, we can observe the preparatory work everywhere. Conducted training, approbation, resources are being siphoned, within our country appropriate infrastructures are grown.
Summarizing, we can conclude that the hybridwar is a modern evolved form of war. The list of the newest forms of war dictated by the West can also be supplemented with cyberwar, network, information, cognitive war, the war in the first phase in Iraq, a distant war that unfolded in Yugoslavia.
But that's amazing and amazing. If we read completely new government documents developed and adopted as early as 2014 by our government, neither in the "National Security Strategy" nor in the "Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation" nor in the "Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation" will we find a single use or the interpretation of the concepts of all these wars, including hybrid ones. What can we say here? It remains only to confirm their views on the origins of such terms and the purposes of their use.
Of course, the hybrid war has recently becomereality, clearly and confidently outlined its contours, the power of influence and effectiveness of which far exceed the same characteristics of war in the traditional sense. Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, General of the Army Gerasimov, speaking of the hybrid war, considers it superior to any military means used in the process of real military operations. Therefore, the priority in strengthening civil consciousness is understanding the methods and methods of its conduct. Today, each of us must stand up for our own future, do everything possible to preserve our country as an integral, sovereign state, correctly assess and calmly react to all provocations coming from the West.
It is important to objectively perceive thesituation, consider any social and economic phenomenon primarily from the position of a Russian citizen who cares about the fate of his great motherland.