What disciplines exist in equestrian sports?
Equestrian sport is one of the most ancient. Indeed, in the countries of the ancient east, in the 17th century BC, horses harnessed in chariots were held, and even in the time of the pharaohs in Egypt, one of the most ancient hippodromes already existed.
Many people think that equestrian sport is one of the easiest species, such as cycling. He mounted his horse, pulled his harness and galloped off. However, it is not. Equestrian sport is also a study of the psychology of an animal, you need to be able to understand it, take into account its condition and even desires.
Modern equestrian sport is divided into several types. One of them is dressage. I note that this is already a high school of riding.
Overcoming obstacles is a widespread type of equestrian sport, here each participant must overcome 6 to 13 different obstacles on horseback, which are arranged along a special route. The distance of such a route ranges from 200 to 1100 meters and runs along a special field.
Triathlon is one of the types of the Olympic Games.Triathlon consists of manege riding, field trials and overcoming obstacles. Manezhnaya riding most often takes place in an open area and less often - in a closed arena, according to the program, which includes a demonstration of exercises on the basic paces.
Horse racing is a competition, almost like athletics, for the fastest possible distance on a racetrack or level terrain. Competitions are held at a distance of 1,200 to 3,200 meters, as well as at longer distances - up to 7 km. If the race with obstacles, of course, the length of the racetrack is reduced to two or three kilometers.
Equestrian sport is a collective concept, which means sports with the use of horses. When riding, the rider actively interacts with the movement of the horse. The horse is controlled by the movement of the rider's weight, the compression of the hips and the weakening or tensioning of the reins. The voice of the rider can also affect the movement of the horse, but not by all kinds of equestrian sport is allowed. What other disciplines are found in the professional equestrian sport?
Jumping - overcoming obstacles - the most spectacular sport.Long distance training of a horse and a rider is necessary for participation. Speed and prudence, courage and elegance, cleanliness of the jump make the competition to overcome obstacles sharply spectacular.
Obstacles collected from various poles, boards, gates, suspended fences. They are attached with special sockets (Kolobashki). If you touch an obstacle, it will fall out of the nest.
Competitive field should be fenced, smooth, with a soft grass or sandy surface. In winter, competitions are held in closed arenas. Obstacles are arranged so that riders can overcome them without slowing down at the pace of the field canter.
There are many different types of show jumping. The most common are competitions in which the rider must, for a certain time, overcome in the established sequence all the obstacles on the competition field. The results of such competitions are estimated by the number of penalty points.
In case of violations (the horse’s refusal to overcome an obstacle - abandonment, carrying around, the destruction of an obstacle, etc.), the rider receives penalty points - 4 sh. for every violation.For exceeding the time set for the route, the rider also receives penalty points - 1 bp. - for every second overdue.
The rider is excluded from the competition in the following cases: if the horse has twice dropped, if the rider fell on the route with or without a horse, if he violated the route scheme, etc. According to the degree of difficulty, the competition is divided into classes: easy, medium, difficult and superior, which differ size and number of obstacles.
At the Olympic Games, World and European Championships, the largest competitions within the country, the programs include top class competitions. In competitions for the cup, each participant overcomes the route of the highest class twice on the same horse in the first and second circles (gits).
In other types of jumping, participants must, for example, choose a route themselves and overcome it in the shortest possible time (“hunting parkour”) or, on the contrary, at a certain time, jump the maximum number of obstacles installed in the field (“jumping by choice”).
They hold competitions up to the first error, on the power of the jump, on six gradually rising obstacles, with overcoming obstacles for increasing difficulty, as well as relay races and single jumps over sheer, high-latitude or latitudinal obstacles.Such a variety of conditions makes the competition accessible to equestrians of different qualifications and interesting for the spectators.
Jumping appeared relatively recently. In the fifties of the nineteenth century, for the first time in Paris, competitions were held in jumping over obstacles called "jumping-ippik". In itself, overcoming obstacles on horseback has been familiar to riders for a long time.
In the field, natural obstacles were often encountered that could only be overcome by jumping. For centuries, this happened spontaneously, there was no system for training the rider. For Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, there was a passion for horse hunting and the development of purebred horse breeding.
Equestrian sport develops with horse breeding, where barrier jumps and steeple-chees take a large place. These tests largely contributed to the emergence of new types of equestrian sports, in which jump competitions quickly developed and mastered the technique of preparing a hunting jump horse.
In the process of such preparation, competitions to overcome obstacles appeared as a new kind of equestrian sport. Gradually, it spread beyond France.For jumping, you can use the horses breed barokpinto.
Dressage is the most difficult and mysterious sport. This is the execution of certain elements in the prescribed manner. The degree of difficulty depends on the age of the rider and horse, as well as on the skills of the athlete. Dressage can be compared with any sport where choreography, plastic, aesthetics are taken into account.
The dressage has undergone significant changes compared to the dressage that existed at the beginning of the century, in the 19th and even the 18th centuries: complex elements such as the Spanish step, school jumps and many others that can now be seen only in Spanish, disappeared. Viennese school or circus.
Such exercises, on the one hand, served as training horses for military service, and on the other, were focused only on certain horse breeds. Finally, it is no secret to anyone that they were artificial and were achieved, rather, by training, than dressage. What is she - dressage - today? The main thing is that dressage has become competitive. Now it is becoming increasingly difficult to succeed.
Such a thing became important for the dressage: if the one who traveled just gently and made fewer mistakes won, now we are not talking about mistakes, tough competition forces athletes to perform on the verge of a foul.For example, if it is an added trot, then the horse is so rushing that it is about to break into a gallop. The one who does not risk does not drink champagne, and it is he who becomes the leader.
Now dressage has become much more dynamic. Elements follow one another, without interruption, there is no time to relax. The only condition for leadership and victory today is a huge competitive experience. Finally, dressage does not stand still. For dressage, you can use both Frisian and Andalusian horses and baroquinto.
One more classical kind of equestrian sport - driving is getting more and more widespread in the countries of Europe and Central America. In this form, not horse athletes compete, but horse teams: four-horse, doubles and single. Driving competitions include three types, largely repeating the competition triathletes.
On the first day, on a standard fenced site measuring 40 × 100 m with a flat grass cover, the team demonstrates the movement of horses, the synchronism of their movements, the accuracy and performance of the gaits, controllability when performing various figures: changing direction, volts, stops, etc.The matchedness of the pair, the coherence of its movements are also evaluated. A separate assessment is subject to the appearance of horses and equipment, as well as the crew.
The second day is the most difficult - it determines the outcome of all competitions. At a distance of up to 28 km, special sections are often arranged, often tied to difficult terrain, which are equipped with fences and restraints that seriously impede the passage of the route. Within these areas, the time of their passage is recorded, for exceeding which participants receive penalty points.
On the third day, the site again hosts competitions for the high-speed passage of several gates, located in a complex route, which involves rather sharp turns. The width of the gate is slightly more than the regulated width of the gauge of the crew, and their stops are easy to fall when grazing. For violation of the integrity of the gate get penalty points.
The sum of points scored in three types determines the places of the participants. This type of equestrian sport is very beautiful and attracts a large number of spectators. Due to the correct mixing of rocks of various breeds, barokpinto has become an ideal breed for driving.
Show programs - spectacular performances with the participation of horses. Usually stylized under a certain image. A striking example is the western show. For them, the ideal breed baroqpinto.
Pinto frisky horses and smart riders in images of cowboys or Indians seemed to have come out of American films. Sometimes a scenario is played up, and sometimes the horse just performs some tricks or vaults.