Types of bronchitis in a child, treatment of folk remedies and medicines
Bronchitis - types, symptoms, treatment
The form of bronchitis in children is divided into acute, prolonged and recurrent.
Based on the causes, which depend on the causative agent of inflammatory processes, the disease can be divided into:
- Viral or viral infectious: parainfluenza, influenza, adenoviruses;
- Bacterial. It is generated by streptococci, staphylococci, hemophilus bacilli, moraxella, chlamydia and mycoplasma
- Allergic, asthmatic, obstructive, which occurs under the influence of chemical stimuli and physical factors: house dust, animal hair, plant pollen, household chemicals.
In most cases, one-year-old children are diagnosed with the following types of bronchitis:
- sharp simple;
Considering the symptoms of the disease, it is worth noting the most basic - dry paroxysmal strong cough, which is accompanied by shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Gradually it is moistened, and the accumulated mucus not only complicates the process of gas exchange, but also disrupts the normal functioning of the lungs. This is due to too narrow respiratory passages.
This bronchitis affects the small bronchioles and bronchi. Quite often multiplies against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, flu, inhalation of icy air or as an independent disease.
The danger is that it can cause acute respiratory failure.
Considering the symptoms, it is worth saying that it is accompanied by:
- characteristic paroxysmal dry cough;
- severe shortness of breath;
- dry mouth;
- lack of tears when crying;
- consuming less food and drink;
- rare urination;
- tachycardia on the background of 60-80 breaths per minute;
- grunting shallow breathing;
- listening to diffuse wet-voiced fine wheezing;
- anxiety, capriciousness, agitation.
A blood test may wear minor changes, which will consist in a small leukocytosis and increased ESR levels.
At home, the treatment of a child at that age is impossible and extremely dangerous. Hospitalization and constant monitoring by doctors is necessary. Before the arrival of a specialist in case of seizures, you must:
- create the best possible comfortable air;
- turn on the humidifier;
- use the air purifier.
In the hospital, treatment will consist of relieving the signs of respiratory failure by inhalation with bronchodilators, breathing pure oxygen, prescribing antibiotics: Sumamed, Macropene,Erythromycin, Augumentina, Amoxiclav. Not rarely used drugs containing interferon. Also, a course of treatment is built on the reception of antihistamines. In the case of dehydration, rehydration is performed.
In children, acute bronchitis is the most common. Under this term it is necessary to understand the inflammatory processes occurring on the mucous membranes of the bronchi without the symptoms of inflammation of the lung tissue.
The clinical symptoms are as follows.
At the beginning:
- general weakness;
- lack of appetite.
- runny nose;
- dry cough with increasing intensity;
- listening to dry diffuse wet rales of various sizes;
- sometimes barking cough.
In the first days of the child, bronchitis causes the temperature to rise to 38 degrees, but in the case of a mild course of the disease, it does not exceed 37 or 37.2. After 6-7 days dry cough flows into the wet. He is already accompanied by sputum discharge and improvement of the child’s condition. The average duration of the disease is from 7 to 21 days.
It should be noted that the severity of the disease directly depends not only onwhat treatment was undertaken, but also on the strength of the baby’s immune system, the presence of systemic and chronic diseases.
If adenovirus or mycoplasmal acute bronchitis is diagnosed, children may experience the following symptoms of intoxication:
- lack of appetite;
All these signs can last for seven days.
A mild course of bronchitis will be indicated by a dry non-productive cough, which by the end of the week will turn into a wet one, and the child’s condition will not be overshadowed by complications.
As a rule, acute bronchitis in children is bilateral, and mycoplasmal - unilateral. Often combined with conjunctivitis.
The treatment of acute bronchitis in a child is given no more than 14 days. Dr. Komarovsky also focuses on this. It is worth noting that in infants the cough persists for up to a month.
A full course of healing is prescribed by a pediatrician and, as a rule, consists of:
- drink plenty of water;
- provide special nutrition;
- quality care for your baby;
- create optimum moisture;
- frequent room ventilation;
- use of a humidifier;
- knocking down high temperatures above 38 degrees;
- taking prescribed antibiotics;
- use of cough medicine;
It is not uncommon for older children to prescribe the so-called distracting means, among which there are mustard plaster, jars and hot baths for the legs.
Soar baby feet can be after the first year of life. It is also recommended to rub them with warming agents: Pulmaksi baby, turpentine ointments, Badger, but only in the absence of high temperature.
After rubbing the legs are warmed and wrapped. If a child has allergic bronchitis, then mustard and warming ointments are strictly forbidden to use.
In children up to 3-4 years of age, obstructive bronchitis can be triggered by the acute form of this disease. In the dominant number of cases, the symptoms of bronchitis in children in the stipulated form may appear after allergic manifestations to any irritant or viral infections.
In particular, Dr. Komarovsky draws the attention of parents to the fact that obstructive bronchitis is accompanied by the following main symptoms - hearing from a distance, hoarse and with a whistling breath, and a harassing paroxysmal cough.
If this disease in a child acts on an allergic background, then an increase in body temperature will not be observed.
It must be remembered that in children obstructive bronchitis can manifest itself through certain symptoms on the 3rd or 4th day of the occurrence of such diseases as SARS or flu. It can also be provoked by bacteria.
As a rule, the child has noisy wheezing. Especially elongated and whistling exhale is obtained. It is audible to persons who are near the sick baby. Cough is always dry, paroxysmal. It does not bring relief and it occurs suddenly. At night, greatly enhanced. It is precisely to this symptom that Dr. Komarovsky pays attention.
A blood test for viral damage will show:
- accelerated ESR;
- eosinophilia (in case of allergic bronchitis).
Dr. Komarovsky notes that in dominant cases obstructive bronchitis in a child is associated with a virus or a mycoplasmal infection. Regarding relapses accompanying the disease, it is necessary to remember that after reaching 4 years they all spontaneously cease to appear.
We must not forget that obstructive bronchitis in a child can be caused by passive smoking. In this case, the symptoms will be as follows: a strong cough with a whistle in the morning and a general satisfactory condition.
Having considered the symptoms of the disease, one can get acquainted with its possible treatment. In particular, the treatment of such a disease in children from one to two years old takes place stationary. In all other cases at home.
Mandatory treatment will take place within the walls of the hospital with symptoms of intoxication, severe signs of respiratory failure and suspected pneumonia.
Treatment consists of taking:
- cough suppressants;
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
Often prescribed draining and postural massage, which recommends to his patients, Dr. Komarovsky.
A draining massage is used to facilitate the discharge of sputum in a child and is done by the parents themselves. It consists in massaging the back, collar area and chest.
It is useful to know that bronchitis is treatable by the method of additional use of postural massage. It consists in the following:
- In the morning, the child should be placed on the edge of the bed, so that the breast is lying on the pad, and the head sensibly hung down.
- Putting your palms in the boat you need 10-15 minutes to tap on the back of the baby.
For older children, the treatment is more complicated: during the massage the baby must take a deep breath, and tapping must be carried out during the exhalation. No less useful would be exercises on ballooning or blowing out candles.
What drugs to treat bronchitis?
Antibiotics: can and cannot
If bronchitis in children was caused by a virus or an allergen, the treatment may not contain antibiotics. They are extremely dangerous.Their use is permissible only when the infectious origin of the disease is well established.
In turn, the treatment of bronchitis allows the use of antibiotics in such cases when:
- the child has a fever for more than 4 days, or her second race is recorded to 39 degrees after 4-5 days after her normalization;
- severe intoxication is observed: vomiting, headache, weakness, nausea, refusal to eat, lack of appetite.
They can only be prescribed by a pediatrician, based on the clinical picture.
To exclude the possibility of recurrence in the form of bronchitis, Dr. Komarovsky advises to pay attention to antiviral drugs for influenza or ARVI, but taking immunostimulants is strictly prohibited.
In the case of a severe form of the disease, the treatment of the child may include the appointment of hormonal drugs. This happens in most cases with the use of a nebulizer and only as directed by a physician.
Diagnosing obstructive bronchitis in children prohibits the use of rubbing,smearing warming ointments and the use of mustard plaster, as they can cause a strong allergic reaction or bronchospasm. Especially when it comes to kids up to 3 years.
In case of bronchitis, it is impossible to carry out inhalation yourself, using folk remedies or essential oils, only with the permission of the pediatrician. Applicable heat compresses with potatoes, buckwheat, salt. Dr. Komarovsky always draws the attention of parents to this nuance.
When curing children of bronchitis, it must be remembered that during the period of exacerbation of the disease physiotherapy is contraindicated, but when it is stopped, UHF, electrophoresis and the use of a laser are allowed.
Diet for bronchitis
Dr. Komarovsky warns that such a disease cannot be treated only with folk remedies. You need to take care of a special diet, which should include mineral water, tea and broth hips. These drinks in the menu of the child should be dominant. Be sure to make it in such a way that it is completely hypoallergenic.
For the speedy recovery from the diet of children should be excluded:
orange and red fruits;
- sausages and sausages;
- bee products;
- store hens.
As mentioned above, you should not limit yourself only to folk remedies in the treatment of this disease, since its relapses can be fatal. Ventilate and humidify often.