Moses. Part 2. Short summary
The commandments of love for God: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind” and about love for man: “thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself” were scattered in the Pentateuch of Moses.The lordmerges into onethe commandments of love for God and neighbor and calls it the most important.
Most of the rest of the commandments were formed as prohibitions.
Commandments - an educational measure for the salvation of Israel, for his special mission in the ancient world.
The commandment that you should love your neighbor as yourself, had a very limited meaning. First, you should love the Israelite. Secondly, good Israelite to you.
Attitude to the enemyand the alien was ambiguous. While the enemy is on your territory - you give him shelter, food, treat him as a welcome guest. From a Christian point of view, this is hypocrisy. But from an Old Testament point of view, no. Outside of your home, he continues to be an enemy.
In the most ancient period of the existence of Israel, only criminal killings were considered a crime. If the murder is involuntary, you can still fear revenge from the relatives of the victim and have the right to flee.
In moral matters, the so-calledthe golden rule of morality. As you want to do with you, so do you with others.It was the principle of equal energy reward.
It must be said that the famous principle “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” did not bring excuses for blood feud, but carried the character of the limitation of evil.The commandments of the New Testament have as their goal the destruction of evil, and the Old Testament commandments are the limitation of evil. “An eye for an eye ...” does not mean that you have to take revenge. This appeal is not to the avenging, but to the sinner. If you are going to tear the eye out of someone, know that the eye will be pulled out from you too. This is the principle of a warning of restitution for a crime.
This is a reward in mortal life. And it is precisely due to the fact thatin Israel there was a simple principle of punishment: either a fine, or, if it does not help, the death penalty.
It was believed thata man who sinned cannot live in the land of Israel: his soul was destroyed. Soul and life were synonymous. Thus, the death penalty was not transferred to the nature of revenge. It was a sacred penalty. This can only be understood within the logic of the ancient theocratic society. In secular society, the death penalty turns into an attempt to revenge against the criminal. Crime in ancient Israel was followed by either a fine or death. There is a line that cannot be crossed. If you crossed it, you died.
Laws of the Old Testament
The laws of Moses are scattered in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Mostly they are in Exodus and Deuteronomy.These are laws on slaves, about murders, about sexual sins, about ritual purity, about a temple, holidays, animals clean and unclean.There are six hundred and thirteen with ten commandments.
Slavery in Old Testament Israel was largely limited. It was more economic than the slavery of the individual.And there was a special attitude towards Jewish slaves. The slave, though he fell into forced bondage, nevertheless, he remained your brother spiritually. A number of laws contributed to the fact that the owner was responsible for his employee, for the slave. That is, he was not a thing, as in Rome, but was a dependent person.
For the malicious killing of a man indulged in death. Including for having struck a father or mother, and even for slandering a father or mother, he could be put to death.The one who sacrifices to the gods must be exterminated. The fortunetellers were also not left alive. There were also sex sins.
For everything must pay accordingly.Not necessarily an equal number. Sometimes four, five times more. For example, the one who steals an ox will pay five oxen for one. And whoever cannot pay the ransom is taken into slavery.
At first Moses judged all matters., and then he divided this duty among the various judges who reported to him about their cases. Certain laws also applied to these judges.
A whole body of laws dealt with issues of ritual purity and impurity.. First of all it was a question about ritualcleananimals.
Another aspect of cleanliness or impurity dealt with life and death. Every corpse was considered unclean. Touching a corpse meant uncleanness. Corpse unclean why? Because the corpse is a visible phenomenon of death. And death is unclean, for it is the breath of the devil.The one who touched the dead body needed a special ritual of purification. (41:45)Death is unclean.
Childlessness was also considered a sign of rejection.But in some cases it was corrected by prayer.
Leprosy was considered a sign of terrible uncleanness.But if it turned out that this was not leprosy, but another skin disease, the person had to perform an appropriate purification ritual. In all cases of touching the unclean, except for making a sacrifice, the person must have washed himself with sanctified water.
Male physiological ejaculation and normal female bleeding were considered a sign of impurity. This idea came from the awareness of purity and holiness of marriage. From a Christian point of view, the manifestations of physiological impurity should be considered as moments that indicate that our body is imperfect, painful, mortal. But then this mortality of the body was given a direct meaning. That is, it is a spiritual impurity that manifests itself through the body.
It is now ridiculous to relate to impurity in the Old Testament understanding.This is a legalistic approach, one cannot act that way. It is impossible to raise physical impurity to the rank of the soul.The purity of God conquers your physiological impurity.
The Old Testament attitude to impurity in our time - ritualism and legalism, which the Lord teaches us to fight, starting from the time of the Gospel.
At the time of the Old Testament, the people in their spiritual condition was a baby. And this child needed to be brought up. For this, given the law. Strict, tough commandments.
The Old Testament meaning of marriage is children.The only purpose of marriage, from the point of view of Old Testament ideas, is children. The more children, the more fulfilled the blessed marriage. The less children, the worse. No child is a sign of rejection from God, detachment, curse.
All forms of relationships that contribute to a family where there are many children are permissible and blessed.- A wife, two wives, two wives and several concubines, and so on. The Old Testament law nowhere fights against bigamy and the institution of concubines in terms of marriage and sex. But for extramarital sex threatened death.
The severity of attitudes towards sexual sins, and especially sexual perversions, was due to one thing - it is disgusting before God.The warning sounded: this does not fulfill the promise of Abraham about the birth of children.(1:00:55)
Along with these sins is the so-called sin of Onan, onanism. But the sin of Onan was not a masturbation at all, but another sin: Onan did not want to restore the seed to his late brother.Handicrafts wrongly called onanism. By the sin of Onan, it has nothing to do. Only in form, not in content. In fact, this is a completely different sin. It is the sin of not wanting to participate in the law of the restoration of the seed.
Not all the laws of the Pentateuch are laws of one time, they were gradually being formed.
In general, sexual morality was due to questions of a non-Christian, and the Old Testament attitude to marriage.
The merging of two into one flesh before the face of God, unity for joint salvation is the main goal of marriage. The one whois savednot in marriage, but in monasticism, for example, is saved on the basis of other principles. And in marriage, a person is saved through the union of two in a single organism. And we learn in Christianity is already the secret of the small church. The Lord does not give a new doctrine of marriage in the New Testament, but returns us to the heavenly ideal.
In the Old Testament, the ideal of marriage was relegated to the background, for the sake of the practical purpose of the Old Testament - reproduction.
An ancient Jew learned to do God's will not for a reward in heaven, but for prosperity on earth.If not I will be happy, he thought, then at least my descendants. A righteous man, if he himself does not see the fruits of his righteousness, until the third, until the seventh generation,the prophetsto the thousandth everyone will be happy and righteous. A notorious sinner to the third generation is all damned. This thought was held for a very long time by the people, until the late prophets.
At the same time, a person must fulfill the will of God, because only in this way can he be happy. This happiness will always be present.