Modern types of death penalty
The death penalty - the death penalty, which today is prohibited in many countries around the world. And where it is allowed, it is used only for extremely serious crimes. Although there are countries (for example, China) where the death penalty is still widely used for much smaller offenses, such as: bribery, pimping, counterfeiting of banknotes, tax evasion, poaching and others.
In Russian and Soviet legal practice, to designate the death penalty at different times, euphemisms were used: “the highest measure of social protection”, “capital punishment”, and in later times “exceptional punishment”, since the death penalty was officially considered The punishment is not practiced, but is applied as an exception as a punishment for particularly serious ordinary and state crimes.
To date, the world's most common 6 different types of death penalty.
A form of the death penalty in which killing is achieved with the help of a firearm. At the moment, the most common of all the other methods.
Shooting is usually carried out with guns or rifles, less often with other handguns. The number of shooters is usually from 4 to 12, but may be different according to the situation. Sometimes, in order to alleviate the conscience, they mix live ammunition with idle. Thus, none of the shooters know whether he was the one who made the fatal shot.
According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, execution is the only form of the death penalty. Although the death penalty in our country has not been abolished by law, only a moratorium on it caused by international commitments related to Russia's accession to PACE is observed. Real execution of the death penalty has not been since 1996.
In Belarus, shooting is also the only method of execution of the death penalty.
Until 1987, execution was the official method of execution of the death penalty in the GDR.
In the US, shooting is saved as a backup method of execution in one state - Oklahoma; Besides,theoretically, 3 people who were sentenced to death in the state of Utah before the legal abolition of the execution could be shot, as this law does not have retroactive effect.
In China, where the largest number of death sentences is being carried out today, a convict is kneeling at the head with a machine gun on his knees. The authorities periodically arrange public demonstration shootings of convicted government officials who are bribe takers.
Today, 18 countries use hanging as a sole or one of several types of executions.
A form of the death penalty, which consists in strangling a noose under the influence of a heavy body.
For the first time, the ancient Celts used murder by hanging, bringing human sacrifices to the air god Jesus. Cervantes mentions execution by hanging in the 17th century.
In Russia, hanging was practiced in the imperial period (for example, the execution of the Decembrists, Stolypin ties, etc.) and the warring parties during the civil war.
Later, hanging was practiced in the short period of wartime and the early postwar years in relation to war criminals and people who collaborated with the Nazis.At the Nuremberg trial, 12 top leaders of the Third Reich were sentenced to death by hanging.
Today, 19 countries use hanging as a sole or one of several types of executions.
3. Lethal injection.
A method of carrying out the death penalty, which consists in the introduction into the body of a sentenced solution of poisons.
Used in the late XX - early XXI century, the method was developed in 1977 by forensic scientist Jay Chapman and approved by Stanley Doych. Sentenced is fixed on a special chair, he is introduced into the veins of two tubes. First, the drug is administered thiopental sodium - usually it is used (in a lower dose) for anesthesia during operations. Then through the tubes are introduced Pavulon, which paralyzes the respiratory muscles, and potassium chloride, which leads to cardiac arrest. Texas and Oklahoma soon passed laws allowing the use of such a combination; The first use occurred in Texas at the end of 1982. Following them, similar laws were passed in 34 US states.
Death occurs in the period from 5 to 18 minutes after the start of the execution. There is a special machine for drug administration, but in most states they prefer to inject solutions manually, considering it to be more reliable.
Today, lethal injection as the sole or one of several types of executions is used by 4 countries.
4. Electric chair.
The device with which death sentences are carried out in some states of the USA.
The electric chair is a chair made of dielectric material with armrests and a high back, equipped with straps for rigid fixation of the sentenced person. Hands are attached to the armrests, legs - in special clips of the legs of the chair. Also a special helmet is attached to the chair. Electrical contacts are connected to the ankles and to the helmet. The composition of the technical support includes a step-up transformer. During the execution of the penalty, alternating current is applied to the contacts with a voltage of about 2700 V, the current limiting system supports the current through the body of the convicted 5 A.
The electric chair was first used in the United States on August 6, 1890, in the Auburn Prison of New York. William Kemmler, the murderer, became the first man executed in this way. Currently available in seven states - in Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, Kentucky,Tennessee and Virginia were chosen by the convict along with a lethal injection, and in Kentucky and Tennessee only those who committed a crime before a certain date have the right to choose the use of an electric chair.
Today, electric chair as the only or one of several types of executions is used only in the United States.
The physical separation of the head from the body is accomplished with the help of a special tool - a guillotine or chopping-cutting tools - an ax, sword, knife.
Decapitating unconditionally leads to brain death as a result of sharply progressive ischemia. Brain death occurs within a few minutes after the head is separated from the body. The stories that the head looked at the executioner, learned her name and even tried to speak, are, from the point of view of neurophysiology, greatly exaggerated. The head loses consciousness after 300 milliseconds after clipping and almost all higher nervous activity, including the ability to feel pain, irreversibly stops. Some reflexes and cramps of the muscles of the face may last a few more minutes.
Today 10 countries in the world have lawspermitting beheading as the death penalty, however, reliable information about their use exists only in respect of Saudi Arabia. Most of the decapitations these days have been committed in jurisdictions subject to the Islamic Sharia, militant Islamists in hot spots, as well as paramilitary organizations and drug cartels in Colombia and Mexico.
Type of the death penalty, still familiar to the ancient Jews.
Currently, stoning is used in some Muslim countries. On January 1, 1989, stoning was preserved in the legislation of six countries of the world. A number of media outlets reported the execution of a teenage girl in Somalia on October 27, 2008 by an Islamist court decision, after she was allegedly raped by three men on her way from Kismayo’s hometown to relatives in Mogadishu. According to Amnesty International, the convicted was only thirteen years old. At the same time, the BBC channel noted that the journalists present at the execution of the sentence estimated her age at 23 years old, and the conviction of a 13-year-old girl for adultery would be contrary to Islamic law.
On January 16, 2015, it was reported that the Islamic Republic of Iraq and the Levant were beaten with stones by militants in the Iraqi city of Mosul that they had captured and accused of adultery.