Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix

Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix

Methods for the formation of verbal participlesfrom verbs two: with the help of suffixes and prefixes. Each method has its own rules and nuances. There are many illustrativeformation of gerunds of tables(we propose one of them in this article), but before learning how to understand them, one must clearly understand what gerundive is, and what features this part of speech possesses.

ways of forming gerunds

What is the gerundive and gerundive turnover?

The gerundive is an independent, formed fromverb part of speech, which combines the properties of an adverb and a verb, indicates in the sentence an additional action caused by the predicate and committed by the subject. A bunch of gerunds with words that are dependent on it are called adverbial participles.

The gerunds and adverbial movements are alwaysare isolated on the letter and answer the questions "what did you do?", "what are you doing?", in some cases they are asked the "adulthood", "how", "when?" peculiar to the adverbs.

For example:

  • running a marathon (what did?);
  • picking berries (what's doing?);
  • she looked, smiling (how?).

ways of forming gerunds

Morphological signs

The gerunds have such morphological features of the verb as transitivity, appearance and recurrence:

  • mTo be (irretrievable, imperfect species) is mine;
  • wash (irrevocable, perfect look) - washing;
  • wash (return, perfect look) - after washing.

The gerunds spread the same way as verbs:

  • washing hands is my hands;
  • wash apples by washing apples;
  • to wash after jogging - after washing after jogging.

The gerunds have such features of adverbs as immutability by gender, conjugation, number, face:

  • He smiled as he read the book. They smiled as they read the book. She forgot about the environment, reading the book.

the formation of the verbal participles table

Syntactic signs

The syntactic features of gerunds areits dependence on the verb-predicate, and also the role in the sentence. Like adverbs, the majority of verbal participles and single verbal participles are circumstances:

  • Circumstance of time.Walking in the park, she met friends.
  • Cause of the reason.Hardly ill, he immediately began to drink tea with honey.
  • Circumstance of the condition.Well knowing the director, you can solve any production issue.
  • The circumstances of the concession.Even angry, she did not raise her voice.
  • Modus operandi.He ran, rapidly picking up speed.

the method of forming verbal participles is suffixed

Formation of verbal participles of imperfect type

There are three ways of forming verbal participle from imperfective verbs.

With the help of suffixes "-I" or "-yas":

  • to realize - realizing;
  • break - breaking;
  • read - reading;
  • tries - trying;
  • laughs, laughing;
  • preparing - preparing.

Using the suffix "-a":

  • shouting - shouting;
  • cry - weeping;
  • hold - hold.

And a more rare way of forming verbal participles is with the suffixes "-Suggestions"and" -uchi":

  • be - being;
  • go-go-go;
  • go - go;
  • sorry - sorry;
  • plays - playfully.

the formation of verbal participles of imperfect type

There are no verbal participles from the following imperfective verbs:

  • with a base on the letters "k" and"d"-flow, run;
  • with a basis that consists only of consonants, -weave, pour, live, reapand others (gerundsrushingfrom the verbrush- an exception);
  • with a stem on the letters "st," "c", "h", "x" in an indefinite form and a hissing letter in the present tense:plow - plow; smear - smear; whip - whip; write - write;
  • with a suffix "-Well":To freeze, look, pull, spit out, stick out;
  • from verbs:tear, wanna, sing, go, climb.

The formation of verbal participles of the perfect species

From verbs of the perfect kind the most common way of forming verbal participles is suffix.

Using the suffix "-at":

  • he let go, lowered;
  • washed - washing;
  • colored - painted;
  • returned - returned.

With the help of suffixes "-shek"and" -chis":

  • wiped-wiped;
  • brought - brought;
  • thought - having thought;
  • expire - expired;
  • swept - rushed.

With the help of suffixes "-lice"and" -vsisь ":

  • smiled - smiling;
  • she washed herself-after washing herself;
  • laughed - laughed;
  • returned - returning.

Less often from verbs of the first conjugation with bases on consonant letters by way of formation of gerunds become suffixes "-I"and"-a":

  • read - read,
  • drove - drove - taking;
  • to lead - away - away - leading away;
  • screaming - screaming.

Equivalent parallel forms of verbal participles can be formed from verbs with suffixes "for"and"-Well":

  • lock - locked / locked;
  • dried - dried / dried,
  • chill out - freeze / chill.

ways of forming gerunds

Formation of gerunds with consoles

There are a number of verbs that can not form verbal participles by means of suffixes, in this case the Russian language finds the original way of forming gerunds - the prefix.

And although the prefixes slightly change the meaning of the verb, but still allow you to create from it a full, beautiful gospel. Examples:

  • rot - rotting;
  • singing - singing;
  • call - calling / naming;
  • to tear - tearing;
  • go - traveling;
  • to run - running;
  • climb.

Errors in the formation of verbal participles

In written texts and in oral speech there areillegitimate, illiterate ways of forming gerunds, which are most often caused by the incorrect use of suffixes with verbs of different kinds. To avoid such errors, it is enough to determine the type of the verb by asking a question to it, and to recall with the help of which suffixes the verbal participles with this kind are formed.

Here is an example of misuse of gerunds in a sentence:

  • Having worked most of all during the year, he still did not advance at all.

From the verb "work"(imperfect type), gerundive can not be formed by the suffix"-at", here you need the suffix" -ya. "That is, the correct version of the sentence looks like this:

  • Working the most during the year, he still did not move at all.

Another example:

  • Painting the fence, they went to the river to swim and bathe.

From the verb of the perfect kind "dye"it is not possible to form a gerundive with a suffix" -I", in this case only the suffix"-at":

  • Painting the fence, they went to the river to swim and bathe.

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  • Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix Methods for the formation of verbal participles: the suffix and prefix