Mental and behavioral disorders. Symptom of a mental disorder
The concept of "mental and behavioraldisorder "refers to a large number of different pathological conditions.The appearance, course and outcome of a particular disorder largely depends on the influence of internal and external factors.In order to understand the essence of the disease - mental disorder, it is necessary to consider the main signs of pathologies. syndromes, their clinical picture is described, the characteristic is given.
By studying this category,psychiatry. Diagnosis is based on various factors. The study, as a rule, begins with the presentation of the general pathological state. Then private psychiatry is investigated. Diagnosis is made after a thorough examination of the patient, identifying the causes that provoked the condition. Based on these data, the necessary method of treatment is selected.
Groups of pathologies
The importance of endogenous (internal) andexogenous (external) factors. For various violations it is different. On the basis of this, in fact, the classification of mental disorders is carried out. Thus, two broad groups of pathologies are distinguished - endogenous and exogenous. The latter should be attributed to disorders caused by psychogenic factors, exogenous-organic cerebral (vascular, traumatic, infectious) lesions, somatic pathologies. Schizophrenia, mental retardation are endogenous mental disorders. The list of these pathologies can also be continued by affective states, senesopathies, hypochondria.
Separation in etiology
This is another way of classifying.In accordance with it, distinguish organic disorders and functional. In the first case, a pathological change in the brain structure is noted. Anatomico-physiological basis of functional diseases is not established. Alzheimer's syndrome, pathologies associated with cerebral vascular disorders, TBI that occur in somatic conditions or due to intoxication (eg, alcohol delirium) are organic mental disorders. A list of functional pathologies make up personal impairments, neurosis, mood changes. To this group also include senile psychoses, schizophrenia.
Separation according to clinical manifestations
Depending on the nature of thethis or that symptom of a mental disorder, it is referred to one of the existing categories. In particular, neuroses are isolated. A neurotic is called a mental disorder that does not exclude sanity. They are closer to normal states and sensations. And also referred to as borderline mental disorders. This means that their manifestations can be controlled without using radical methods. There is also a group of psychoses. These include pathologies accompanied by impaired thinking of a pronounced character, delusions, change in perception, severe inhibition or agitation, hallucinations, inadequate behavior, and so on. In this case, the patient is not able to distinguish his experiences from reality. Next, consider some features of mental disorders of different kinds.
This is a fairly common condition.The main symptom of mental disorder - increased fatigue. A person feels a decline in efficiency, internal exhaustion. Persons suffering from mental disorders can behave differently. When asthenia, for example, they are characterized by impressionability, mood instability, tearfulness, sentimentality. Such people are very easy to move, they can quickly lose their composure because of the little things. In itself, asthenia can act as a symptom of a mental disorder accompanying, in turn, states after severe infectious lesions, operations and so on.
These include states in which, in addition tosome fears, thoughts, doubts appear. People with mental disorders of this type take all these manifestations as their own. Patients can not get rid of them, despite a rather critical attitude towards them. Doubts are the most common symptom of a mental disorder of this type. So, a person can check several times whether he has turned off the light and closed the door. At the same time, moving away from home, he again feels these doubts. As for obsessive fears - phobias, these are quite common fears of height, open space or enclosed space. In some cases, in order to calm down a little, relieve inner tension and anxiety, people perform certain actions - "rituals". For example, a person who is afraid of all kinds of pollution can wash his hands several times or sit for hours in the bathroom. If he is distracted in the process, he will start the procedure anew.
They are quite common. Such states appear in a persistent mood change, as a rule, its reduction - depression. Often, affective conditions are noted in the initial stages of mental illness. Their manifestations can be observed throughout the pathology. At the same time, they often become more complicated, accompanying acute mental disorders.
The main symptoms of this condition aredeterioration of mood, the appearance of a feeling of depression, anguish, depression. In some cases, a person may physically feel chest pain or heaviness. This condition is extremely painful. It is accompanied by a decrease in mental activity. A person in this state does not immediately answer questions, gives monosyllabic, short answers. He speaks softly and slowly. Very often people with depression note that it is somewhat difficult for them to understand the essence of the issue, the text, complain about the memory deterioration. They can hardly make decisions, they do not switch well from one activity to another. People can experience lethargy, weakness, talk about fatigue. Their movements are constrained and slow. In addition to these symptoms, depression is accompanied by a sense of guilt, sinfulness, despair, despair. This is often accompanied by suicide attempts. Some relief of well-being may come in the evening. As for sleep, with depression it is superficial, with early awakening, with anxious dreams, intermittent. The state of depression can be accompanied by tachycardia, sweating, a feeling of cold, heat, constipation, weight loss.
Manic states are acceleratedrate of mental activity. A person has a huge number of thoughts, desires, various plans, ideas of increased self-esteem. In this state, as in the time of depression, sleep disturbances are noted. People with manic mental disorders sleep very little, however, they are enough for a short period of time to feel rested and cheerful. With an easy flow of mania, a person feels the rise of creative power, increased intellectual productivity, increased tonus and performance. He can sleep very little and work hard. If the condition progresses, turns into a heavier one, then a poor concentration of attention, distraction and, consequently, a decrease in productivity is added to the indicated symptoms.
These states are characterized by very differentunusual sensations in the body. In particular, it can be a burning sensation, tingling, constriction, twisting and so on. All these manifestations have nothing to do with pathologies of internal organs. When describing such sensations, patients often use their own definitions: "rustled under the ribs", "it seemed that the head was coming off" and so on.
He is characterized by persistent concernown health. A person is haunted by the idea of a very serious, progressive and probably incurable disease. Patients present somatic complaints while presenting normal or normal sensations as manifestations of pathology. Despite the doctors' dissuasion, negative results of the tests, people regularly visit specialists, insist on conducting additional, more in-depth studies. Often, hypochondriacal states appear against the background of depression.
When they appear, a person begins to perceiveobjects in the wrong - changed form. Illusions can accompany a person with a normal mental state. For example, a change in the object can be observed if it is lowered into the water. As for the pathological state, illusions can appear under the influence of fear or anxiety. For example, in a forest at night a person can perceive trees as monsters.
They act as a persistent symptom of manymental disorders. Hallucinations can be auditory, tactile, taste, olfactory, visual, muscular and so on. Quite often, and their combination. For example, a person can not only see strangers in the room, but also hear their conversation. Verbal hallucinations are called "voices" by patients. They can have different contents. For example, it might just be a call of a person by name or whole sentences, dialogues or monologues. In some cases, "voices" are imperative. They are called "imperative hallucinations." A person can hear orders to kill, to remain silent, to damage themselves. Such conditions are dangerous not only directly for the patient, but also for those around him. Visual hallucinations can be objective or elementary (in the form of sparks, for example). In some cases, the patient can see whole scenes. Olfactory hallucinations are a sense of unpleasant odor (decay, some food, decay), less pleasant or unfamiliar.
Such disorder, according to manyspecialists, refers to the main signs of psychosis. It is difficult enough to determine what nonsense is. Conclusions of doctors in assessing the patient's condition are quite contradictory. There are a number of signs of a delusional state. First of all, it always appears on a painful basis. Delirium is not amenable to dissuasion or correction from outside, despite a fairly clear contradiction with reality. Man is absolutely convinced of the truthfulness of his thoughts. At the heart of delirium lie erroneous judgments, wrong conclusions, false convictions. These thoughts have great significance for the patient, and in this connection, to some extent determine his behavior and actions. Delusional ideas can be associated with:
- influence, poisoning, persecution, jealousy, witchcraft, material damage;
- negation, hypochondria, self-blame, self-abasement;
- erotica and so on.
Delusional disorders differ in different forms. So, there is an interpretative nonsense. In this case, a person uses unilateral interpretations of daily facts and events as evidence. This disorder is considered quite persistent. In this case, the patient is disturbed by the reflection of the cause-effect relationship between events and phenomena. This form of delusion always has a rationale. The patient can something endlessly prove, debate, argue. In the content of interpretive delirium, all the experiences and feelings of a person can be reflected. Another form of this disorder may be figurative or sensual conviction. Such nonsense appears on the basis of anxiety or fear, disturbances of consciousness, hallucinations. In this case, there are no logical premises or evidence; "delusional" way a person perceives everything around him.
Derealization and depersonalization
These phenomena often precede the development ofsensual delusions. Derealization is a sense of the changing world. Everything that is around a person is perceived by him as "unreal," "adjusted," "artificial." Depersonalization is manifested in a sense of self-indulgence. Patients describe themselves as "lost face," "lacking the fullness of sensations," "stupid."
These conditions are characteristic of disordersmotor sphere: stupor, inhibition or, on the contrary, excitement. In the latter case, there is a repeatability, non-purposefulness, randomness of some movements. In this case, they can be accompanied by shouting out individual words or replicas or by silence. The patient can become stiff in an uncomfortable, unusual pose, for example, lifting his leg, stretching out his hand or lifting his head above the pillow. Catatonic syndromes are also noted against a background of clear consciousness. This indicates a greater severity of the disorders. If they are accompanied by confusion of consciousness, then we can talk about a favorable outcome of pathology.
I also call it dementia. Dementia manifests itself in a profound impoverishment of all mental activity, a persistent decline in intellectual functions. Against the background of dementia worsens, and in many cases the ability to absorb new knowledge is completely lost. At the same time, the person is disturbed by adaptability to life.
Distraction of consciousness
Such violations can be noted not only whenmental disorders, but also in patients with severe somatic pathologies. The confusion of consciousness is characterized by the difficulty of perception of the environment, the breaking of ties with the outside world. Patients are detached, they can not realize what is happening. As a result, their contact with other people is disrupted. In addition, patients are poorly oriented in time, in their own personality, in a specific situation. People are not able to think logically, correctly. In some cases, incoherence of thinking is observed.