Man's use of the Volga River: navigation, fishing and much more
Since ancient times people have used waterways fortheir needs, for the realization of certain goals. In ancient Egypt, such a river was the fertile and navigable Nile. Not an exception, but rather a vivid example - the use of a man by the Volga River. Here, one might say, Russia was very lucky. It's not for nothing that this river is called the Great. It is the largest and most abundant among all not only on the Russian Plain, but also in Europe.
So she was affectionately called the Slavs. Its length is according to modern estimates more than three and a half thousand kilometers. And the catchment area is more than a million square kilometers. From Valdai to the Urals, the Volga occupies vast areas. It is not surprising that the use of the Volga River by man has begun even in time immemorial. And cities built, such as Kazan, Volgograd, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara - reach the number of people in a million. Of course, the water channel has a huge impact on the culture, economy and social life of these cities.
The Volga is the nurse. And it was so in all times of people's existence. Probably, originally using the man of the Volga River began with providing food. Even now, in such an uneasy time for ecology, there are more than seventy species of fish in the river, forty of which are or were still commercial fish in the recent past. Among them: vobla, pike perch, bream, pike, carp, and catfish. Sturgeon and sterlet have practically been lost in recent years. For a long time people have not missed the slightest opportunity to stock up with such - almost free - resources. As a result of excessive use of these resources - water pollution and the extinction of some species of fish. The situation, in practice, has taken the form of an ecological catastrophe, which leads to the depletion of fish stocks (according to estimates of specialists, the river in this plan has impoverished almost tenfold).
Man's use of the Volga River in transportaims is also one of the oldest ways. The riverbed and tributaries have long been navigable. And the Volga trade route arises in the 8th century! First, in the small ships, then on powerful steamships and dry cargo ships - people have long been transporting raw materials and materials intended for trade. Communication was also carried out, including mail, between different regions. Forest, fish, coal, lumber, oil and oil products, and much more are transported by water from one point of the country to another, from one state to another. It is interesting that, according to economists' calculations, about half of all water transportation falls on its basin. In this regard, the use of the Volga River by man is undeniable and not subject to reassessment. It is of fundamental importance for the development of the entire country of Russia.
Shipping is carried out for almostthe whole course of the river. The exception is the first two hundred kilometers. It became possible thanks to the project "Big Volga", embodied in life in the 20 th century. The most powerful hydraulic structures were built (from 1932 to 1982). Deepening of the channel was carried out. Reservoirs were built. The water spaces were connected by channels that gave access to the seas. As a result, a powerful water transport network, which has no analogues in the world, has made the use of the Volga River by man the most convenient. Undoubtedly, at the same time, the natural ecology of vast land plots was violated. Some territories were flooded, and people were evicted. Some environmental experts consider this project to be disastrous for the Great River and its entire environment - flora and fauna dependent on the Volga. The implementation of such an enterprise turned out to be fatal for some species of plants and animals. Of course, there is some negative impact in this. But in general, for a person positioned as a "master of nature", for the development of humanity as a community, the significance of the "Great Volga" can not be overestimated.
River Volga in the economic activities of man
And on the river elevenpower stations that use water resources. This cascade was conceived as far back as the 1930s and was subsequently successfully implemented. Huge human and material resources were involved. Sometimes these projects also ran counter to the preservation of the ecology and the surrounding nature. Whole villages and towns were also flooded. But the result was achieved: now more than thirty billion kilowatt per hour are produced at the hydroelectric power stations of the Volga. And the production of energy with water is considered five times cheaper than at the CHP, for example. In addition, it allows you to save huge amounts of coal and fuels and lubricants.
Unparalleled world, builtthe hydrosystem effectively participates in irrigation of arid, but fertile, areas of the Volga, middle and lower. Without an irrigation system, it would be impossible to collect huge harvests on these lands, and they would simply be empty. Irrigation of land additionally shows what kind of river the Volga is. Without these, the use of these soils would be impossible.
The resource of the river is actively used and modernIndustrial objects, in abundance built on the banks. Many chemical, engineering, mining enterprises. All of them could not produce such products without Volga water to the fullest extent.
Recently, the Volga has been actively used andas a tourist object. On the routes of the river there are currently more than one hundred tourist lines. As a rule, travel is carried out on modern liners or passenger ships, quite comfortable. And similar cruises down the Volga become very popular with Russians and foreign guests. And when traveling slowly, you can see with your own eyes how great is the mother Russia and mother Volga.
The use of the Volga River by man
In summary, we can say that the greatestthe river has and continues to exert an unquestionable influence on the fate of the Russian people in general and for every Russian in particular. We need only pay more attention to water purification, prevention of pollution of the basin, and one can not but agree with many environmental scientists.