Major repairs: definition and implementation
Repair is called a set of measures,aimed at the restoration of an operational condition or the operability of an object. New buildings and structures sooner or later become dilapidated, cars, machinery and furniture break down. Repair of a particular object or product may be current (cosmetic) or capital. There is also such a thing as reconstruction.
In any building, sooner or later begin to crumblewalls, refuse electrical wiring, sag and creak floors. If this happens, then it's time to take a set of measures necessary to correct the situation.
First, let's look at thethe definition of capital and current repair exists. The two concepts differ primarily in scale. The scope of work during the overhaul is much higher than when performing cosmetic repairs. In the latter case, only a minor adjustment is made, not too much money is spent. Overhaul usually requires large investments. It is conducted using the latest materials, often on innovative technologies.
Any building must meet the sanitary andtechnical requirements specified by law. In the event that the required result can not be achieved through the current one, major repairs are carried out. Its definition is: "A set of works aimed at improving the quality of the facility, under which it replaces its main, most significant nodes or structural elements."
Buildings and constructions
Need for major repairsobjects, therefore, is regulated by law. It should be carried out in case of wear of 30-70% of a stone building or 65% of a wooden building. There is the concept of full and selective overhaul. In the latter case, work is being done to update only a part of the engineering equipment and individual house designs that really require it. Capital repairs of the building are carried out by the tenants themselves. The only exception is the tenants of municipal apartments.
The time for complete overhaulusually occurs after 30 years of operation of the building, selective - 20 years. The duration of the construction of the house until the time of replacement or reconstruction, depending on the materials used in the erection, is:
- for foundations, ceilings and walls - 30-80 years;
- balconies, stairs, fenders, verandas - 30-80 years;
- roofing, doors, windows - 10-30 years;
- rafter systems, frame walls - 30-80 years;
- interior decoration - 3-30 years.
How to accurately determine the need for major renovation of a building
To any apartment building already at the stage of itsconstruction of a technical passport. This document completely shows the state of its structural elements, engineering communications, etc. It is judged on the possibility of such a procedure as overhaul. The definition of its necessity is the responsibility of the commission created with the involvement of specialists from various services and organizations. That is, the building is inspected on site in advance.
Particular attention should be paid to the basement of the house. It is mandatory to inspect the foundation and bearing floors, the heating system and water supply. The sanitary condition of the basement is also assessed. The presence of such inhabitants as rats, mice, cockroaches, can become an additional reason for making a decision on major repairs. Examination is carried out including for the presence of fungus and mold. The final decision is made by the general meeting of tenants, the initiator of which should be HOA. Owners of apartments agree on the very need for such an event, determine the objects and means of overhaul, the timing of its implementation, etc. After the decision of the tenants will be documented, the HOA can begin to search and hire the necessary specialists for the work.
What activities can be performed
So, which at the moment existsdetermination of the capital repair of the building and what it is, we have found out. Now let's see how, in fact, this event is being carried out. During the overhaul usually:
- dilapidated walls and partitions change;
- new doors are installed;
- align or change the overlap;
- new or old sanitary equipment is being installed;
- if necessary, the structural elements of the building are insulated and waterproofed;
- in some cases, the improvement of the local area.
Thus, the overhaulis aimed at the complete or partial elimination of the wear and tear of utilities and house structures. Pay all the work themselves tenants at home (except for tenants of municipal apartments).
A complex and expensive set of activities,aimed at eliminating worn-out structural elements of the building can partly be carried out by the tenants themselves. For example, apartment owners often change worn floors, level walls and ceilings, replace gas, sanitary and heating equipment. In some cases, such overhaul of premises is performed only after obtaining permits for certain changes in the relevant authorities. If we talk about the transfer of doors, the erection of new partitions, then such actions are equated already with reconstruction.
Urban Development Code
So, we have found out what is the capitalrepair (definition). Town-planning code for holding it for multi-storey houses is quite clear. The implementation of reconstruction and overhaul is regulated by Article 52. Norms this document provides for the following:
- Major repairs are made bydeveloper or an individual or legal entity that he or she attracts. In the last two cases, a contract is compulsorily drawn up. Only persons with a certificate of admission can be involved in the overhaul of structural elements that affect the safety of the building. For the performance of normal work, it is possible to hire any individuals and legal entities.
- During the repair process, the requirements of the design documentation and safety procedures must be observed.
- In the event that when the capitalrepair or reconstruction, an object of cultural heritage will be discovered, all works must be immediately stopped. Responsible persons are required to report findings to the relevant authorities, etc.
Equipment at the enterprises
As in all other cases, the repair of machine tools andmechanisms in industrial enterprises is classified into current and capital. The differences between these two concepts are, first of all, also in scale. Each overhaul facility is preliminarily fully disassembled. Then the work is done in the following order:
- wear parts and parts are changing;
- the repair of stands, skeletons, main shafts and foundations;
- adjustment and alignment of the unit is performed;
- if necessary, the parts are replaced with more modern ones.
That is, the definition of overhaulequipment is approximately the following: "Bringing the state of this particular used machine to the requirements for new machines." Perform overhaul the mechanisms of persons who have access to the production of this kind of work.
Normative order of holding
Next, let's look at how enterprises are performingoverhaul. Determining its order, or rather the approval of the plan, is usually entrusted to the chief engineer of the plant or the plant. He also appoints the person responsible for carrying out the overhaul.
A set of measures for updating equipment can be carried out according to two schemes:
- One-time. In this case, the work of the workshop is completely stopped before the completion of the repair work.
- On a dispersed schedule. In this case, the total volume of all necessary activities is divided into several smaller ones. That is, the workshop continues its work, and major repairs are performed in the periods allocated for the current, in the days of scheduled stops.
The first way at most enterprisesIt is used more often, since overhaul of equipment usually does not take too much time. The average period of its conduct is 5-25 days. In rolling shops in metallurgical production, for example, such repairs are usually made once a year, in blast-furnace shops - once in 2-3 years. However, in recent years, enterprises have increasingly used the second method of doing such work. The fact is that the organization of capital repairs on a dispersed schedule is much more in keeping with modern requirements of production management. The main advantage of this option is, of course, that it allows not to reduce the rate of output of finished products.
Automobiles and other equipment
Now let's see what a capitalcar repair. The definition of this procedure is similar to the previous one. That is, the overhaul of the machine is a complex of rather expensive, time-consuming and time-consuming activities aimed at bringing it to the state of a new (if possible). In its course, the complete replacement of most worn parts and assemblies is usually performed.
Decision on the need for a capitalrepair in this case is usually taken by professionals after a complete diagnosis of all machine systems. Of course, the owner of the car can also become the initiator of its implementation. Most often, the machine is overhauled after an accident.
The order of implementation
Carrying out major repairs of the car is usually done according to this scheme:
- Preliminary diagnosis of components and parts is performed. At the same time, systems that need to be replaced or restored are determined.
- The machine is dismantled, the nodes are dismantled.
- If possible, the parts are repaired. Completely become unusable are replaced.
- In some cases, the basic elements of the car - body, engine, etc., change.
- Next, the machine is tested in conditions close to real.
In the event that the final stage of the problem is not identified, the car is returned to the owner.
In conclusion, another very importantdefinition. Reconstruction and overhaul - concepts are actually different. In the latter case, as we have already found out, a major update of the main elements and nodes of the object is carried out. Reconstruction is a broader concept. When it is carried out, the technical purpose of the object changes. As an example, you can re-plan the apartment, build an additional floor of the house, add new units to the old car, improve its performance characteristics, and so on.
Thus, we gave a precise definition of the concept«Major repairs». This is the name of a large-scale complex of measures, as a result of which any object becomes fully operational again.