Kyariz - holes in the ground
When they talk about Persia, then the king Xerxes first came to mind, with whom the Spartans fought in Fermopilsky Gorge during the Greco-Persian Wars. Meanwhile, we want to draw your attention to the fact that the Persians of that time were a rather developed civilization, the legacy of which still claims itself.
Look at these strange holes in the ground - what do you think it is? Let's start with the fact that this building is almost 3,000 years old and it was built before the Persian war with the Greeks, about three hundred years earlier ...
The construction is called qariz, or qanat, and it is located in the city of Gonabad, which is in modern Iran.
Kyariz is considered one of the greatest inventions of the time! This water supply system is able to collect water from underground horizons and transport it to cities and irrigation canals. Thanks to this, Persia was able to exist and develop in a dry climate.
The hydrotechnical system includes the main well, which receives water from the underground horizon, a system of tunnels,along which water is transported to a certain place, and vertical wells for ventilation along the entire route, which also allows moisture to condense. In addition, the groundwater conduit significantly reduces the evaporation of precious moisture.
The length of the Gonabad Qariz is 33.113 meters, it contains 427 recesses for water. The structures are built using knowledge of the laws of physics, geology and hydraulics, which only confirms the high degree of development of the Persians. Since 2007, Gonabad Karias has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
A similar method of obtaining water was borrowed by many other nations and is found in Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Afghanistan. Kariz is also in Evpatoria, in the Crimea. It is known that once upon a time it was built by Armenians.
Eight thousand years ago, they began to practice irrigated agriculture on the piedmont strip of Kopetdag, using the water of rivers and streams flowing down from the mountains. Subsequently, the development of agriculture and the steady growth demanded new water sources, which became kaniz.
According to the researchers, the first karizas in the territory of Southern Turkmenistan and in the northern regions of Iran emerged in the middle of I thousand.BC. Turkmen legends are building the construction of qanats by the time of Alexander the Great. Another ancient historian, Polybius, reported on the karezes of Southern Parthia, noting that those who would conduct “spring water into an area that was not irrigated until then.” Were given the whole area for five generations. And this is not by chance. Kyariz is a complex hydraulic structure, which is a system of wells connected by underground galleries. The construction of qanats, the depth of which reached several hundred meters, and the length of the galleries - kilometers, was extremely labor-intensive. Moreover, the master dug wells from the bottom up, which was a very dangerous undertaking, because quite often there were landslides. The construction of one kariza stretched for years, sometimes even decades, but the water extracted from them irrigated dozens of hectares of fertile land.
The main master kärizgen had 4-5 assistants under his leadership. The construction of wells and an underground gallery used simple tools: a pickaxe, a small shovel, a protective board, a lamp, a special headdress, a leather bag, a wooden gate, which was used to lower and raise craftsmen, bags of earth, tools, etc.
The depth of the well was determined by the master master with a simple level (rope with weighting agent). The diameter of the wells did not exceed 1 m, the height of the gallery usually varied from 1 m 30 cm to 1 m 50 cm, the width reached 80 cm. With a lack of air at the well, a forge was installed and the reed pipe supplied air to the gallery. The distance between the wells was about 20-30 meters, it was determined by the master himself. And the construction of new kariz, repair and restoration work required not only great and lengthy labor, but also the extraordinary skill and perseverance of karyzgen masters. Masters and their assistants had tremendous power. This can be seen at least in the size of the stones, some of which had dimensions of 120 x 70 x 50 cm. In order to lift and even more carefully put such a lump in the masonry, which serves to strengthen the underground galleries, you need a crane. How our far ancestors managed to do this is still a mystery.
According to the hydrologist G. Kurtovezov, the uniqueness of the method of extracting groundwater by kariznymi systems lies in the fact that these structures extract water from a great depth with complex chains of underground galleries and verticalmanholes, by gravity, bringing water to the surface of the earth, without using traditional energy sources.
Indeed, in the piedmont and desert areas, karezes were actually the only source of drinking water. The Turkmen carefully covered the wells with felines, saving them from the desert sediments and masking them from enemies. In the Middle Ages, karezes on the territory of Turkmenistan were quite numerous. The ruler of Khorasan, Abdullah ibn Tahir (830-840), even instructed religious law experts (fakikhs) to compile a special guidebook on karez. Author XI century. Gardizi writes that the compiled book Kitab al-Kuniy (The Book of the Wells) continued to serve in his time, that is, 200 years after it was written. Unfortunately, the book has not reached our days.
There were many qarises in the Altyn Asyr and Ak Bugdai etraps, Rukhabat, Geoktepe, and Bakharlyn etraps of our country. Large karizy operated in the etrap Baharly, which supplied the population with water until recently. These include the karises of Baharly himself, as well as Durun, Murcha, Suncha, Kelyat.
As noted in the "Review of the Transcaspian region from 1882 to 1890," in early 1890only in the Askhabad district there were 17 qarises and 140 wells. Yes, and in Ashgabat right up to the 40s of the XX century. there were four major karizny systems. Interestingly, the engineer Ya.Tairov indicates that in 1892, 42 karizas worked in the Askhabad district. Most likely, part of the old kariz were cleared and restored. A powerful karez system existed on the Akdepe site in the town of Bikrova (now the Chandybilsky district of Ashgabat). During the excavations of this monument, the author of these lines counted 38 littered wells, stretching in an arc of south-west-south and further south to the modern autobahn. Apparently, there were many more wells, and they stretched from the foothills to the ancient settlement.
Karyaz amaze with their thoroughness and grandeur. For example, the underground gallery of Kareza Kone Murcha has a height of up to 4 meters with a width of 2 meters! Durunskie kariz amaze with its length. In ancient times, they fed a burnt brick water conduit that stretched for tens of kilometers from the foothills to the town of Shekhrislam, located on the border with the desert.
The waters of the kariz set in motion numerous water mills and water-lifting devices (chigiri).One such chigir is mentioned in the X c. on karez in the area of Rabat Ferava (Parau). According to the researchers, this is the Kanriz Janahyr in the south-west of the city of Serdar. According to al-Khorezmi, in the Middle Ages in Khorasan there existed various types of Chygiry (Dulab, Dahlia, Garraf, Zurnuk, Naur, Manjunun), set in motion by the animals. Sources indicate that only on the Amu Darya in the 20s. XX century. up to 15 thousand Chigirey acted, with the help of which about thirty thousand hectares of land were irrigated.
It is noteworthy that the Turkmen had a cult of Shahyzenna - the patron saint of the masters of the well work, in whose honor the sacrifices were arranged. After the removal of the top ground of the earth, the master kyrizgens summoned people to a sadak in honor of Shakhyzenna, so that the digging would not be accompanied by unhappiness. Starting from finding a favorable place for a well and right up to the end of the work, the master begged Shakhyzenna to send him luck. The work of kariz masters was paid by each shareholder, depending on their share of the daily water requirement.
Interestingly, a karez alone could serve a large number of people. For example, more than 120 years ago, the Durun karezes, Huntush and Ainabat, provided 95 and 143 homeowners with water, respectively, and Konez Kone Murcha supplied 53 houses with water.In some places, people remember even the names of the masters of karizniy affairs. Thus, the kyariz Janabat was built over 160 years ago by Ernazar kärizgen and his assistants.
Indeed, the original folk hydraulic engineering has been improved for thousands of years. And now, when powerful equipment and modern technologies are put at the service of man, this invaluable experience of the past deserves attention and study.
Here is what they wrote in the magazine "Around the World" in 1984 about Turkmen kyariznikov:
Karyazniki monitor the action of underground water lines, restore the destroyed lines. This work requires endurance, remarkable strength, and dexterity. Master kyariznik Durdy Khilliev for fifty. At first glance, you cannot say that he can wield four or five hours in a close gallery with a pickaxe and a jackhammer. Thin, angular, fine wrinkles scatter across the forehead and hollow cheeks. But the hands are sinewy, knotty, and the gaze of blue eyes is tenacious. In kariz Durdy got a boy. It was a difficult time. With the first volleys of war, the village became empty. Men went to defend their homeland from the Nazis, their wives and sons were left to grow cotton.Then the smart old-eyed lad liked Ata Nurmukhamedov, an old master kyariznik. At first, Durdy, along with women, dragged archa from the mountains to strengthen the walls of the wells, turning the heavy and bulky gate-Charh. And then the day came when he first fell in kyariz. Since then, more than forty years have passed. Durdy became the father of ten children, the aksakals respectfully greet him, and everyone around him styled him Ussa Durdy.
Among the master kyariznikov there are no equal Durdy Khilliev. Here are just his legs began to grab before bad weather. But such is the fate of not one generation of kariznikov. After all, Zamo and in the summer under the ground have to work knee-deep, or even waist-deep in water.
... Usually resting his elbow on the side, the master holds the lamp in his hand and moves easily, smoothly along a dark corridor. I can’t manage to turn around in a narrow passage - I move back in small, goose-short steps. The water hits the legs, the course increases markedly. Probably, in this place there was a collapse and clay rock narrowed the passage. Finally, I sideways squeeze in between the concrete palan tiles that hold the walls of the gallery. Durdy encourages me:
- A little more, now we will reach the fork in the road, we'll take a rest there.
Behind me I hear Rejab's grunting. And it is not easy. He became a kariznik recently. Before that, however, he also dealt with water - he worked on the collective farm as a irrigator.
At the fork is more spacious. You can straighten, take a breath. I scoop water, rinse my face. Durdy attaches his lamp in a niche, hollowed out in a clay wall, and pulls out cigarettes from under the cap covering his shaved head. Lights from the lamp. You can hear the water splashing.
“Fools,” I ask, “probably anything happened underground?”
“It was, it was, it was a lot,” the master nods. “I'll tell you later.” Upstairs ...
- Lamps leave here or take with you? - asks Regeb.
“Yakshi, yakshi,” Durdy replies. It is clear - we will leave in karizas, tomorrow we will come down here again.
We approach the well. “Come on,” slaps Durda on the shoulder and nods at the rope loop hanging over the water. I put a tangle of rags on it and sit more comfortably on the "donkey", as the karizniki jokingly call this simple device. The cable pulls up, and my legs come off the water. Slowly swimming up. I try to keep myself freer and straighter - the shaft of the well is narrow, and from the walls, fortified with archa branches,here and there nails stick out. Closer the peephole of the kariz, which seemed to be the size of a dime from below. Finally I am upstairs. I rest my hands on the neck of the well, trying to free myself from the loop, but my armpits immediately pick me up, literally pull the brigadier out of dikan I winters Shikhmukhamedov. A few minutes later, next to me, the Redzheb fell on the burnt grass, and soon Durdy’s head appeared above the well. The mouthpiece with a smoking cigarette is firmly clamped in the teeth ...
Karizniki began to fold the tool. Above the valley - the tormenting midday heat. It was still only the end of April, but the grasses had already faded, the grasses had dried, the poppies had turned black. High mountain Tagarev curtained dusty haze. Above the wrinkled brown foothills eagles soar lazily.
“Now it’s possible to remember,” Durda’s words stretched and lowered onto the grass. “In the fiftieth, yes, exactly two years after the Ashgabat earthquake, we cleared a blockade in qarise. The usual thing - pick pick and bale. Suddenly the water rushes! I was knocked down, dragged. Up to the ceiling flooded gallery. Then I don’t remember anything ... I woke up - in which direction was the well, I can hardly think. Saved by the fact that the water immediately subsided ...
- Do you remember how after a heavy rain the mudflow broke into the gallery? - frowns eyebrows Yazim. He is a young brigadier, and he wants to look in front of the masters of solid and experienced. Yazim now and then straightens her dandy black hat, holding on is important.
“Yes, that was the case,” said Durdy. “Then they dug a new kariznaya line day and night to get to the old highway.
“By the way,” the brigadier raises his finger, “each kariz has its own name. We were now in Bukyr-kyarise. And then there is Keleta-kyariz, Tokli-kyariz, Dyali-kyariz, Khan-kyariz. Usually the lines are named after the master who built or rebuilt them.
- Probably, not everyone can become a kariznik? - I ask the foreman.
- Come, go. That also happens. He saw what work. But I don’t want to say anything about it. “Yazim gently touched me on the shoulder.“ Look, you see a guy in jeans, who is pulling the gate to the car? ” This is my brother Habib. Son Durdy also works with us in the brigade. Now decide for yourself who and how becomes a kariznik.
It should be noted that the Gonabad system is still in operation, although it was built 2,700 years ago.Nowadays, it provides water to about 40,000 people, and this is a very impressive figure.