Krutitsy Compound in Moscow
Written by blogger guidemoscow: In Moscow there is one very unique place. A piece of historical Moscow, where time seems to have stopped. I am sure that many of you do not even know about its existence. I admit honestly - having lived in Moscow for more than 30 years, I myself got there only recently. This is the Krutitsy Compound.
1. In ancient times, “Krutitsy” was the name of all the elevations lying on the left bank of the Moscow River, starting from the Yauza River up to the Simonovo Tract. The name of this area occurred, most likely, from the steep bank that the Moscow River has here.
2. Prince Daniel of Moscow gave the bishops of the Sarai and Podonian dioceses a place on the steep bank of the Moskva River, commanding Bishop Varlaam to arrange here a temple in the name of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, consecrated in 1272.
3. Of great importance for the prosperity of the Krutitsky monastery was its location: the proximity of the water (Moscow River) and the land (Nikolo-Ugreshskaya road) highways. Along the eastern part of the fence held known from the XII century. Kolomna road.Heading for the Horde, the Moscow princes often drove along the Nikolo-Ugreshskaya road. The closely located Simonov and Novospassky monasteries, which attracted numerous pilgrims, played their part.
The heyday of the monastery is associated with the name of Metropolitan Paul II (1664–1676), the most educated man of his time, patron of sciences and arts. Extensive construction and landscaping Krutits under Metropolitan Paul II turned this corner of Moscow, according to contemporaries, into "a certain paradise." In the eastern part of the farmstead, a magnificent garden was arranged - one of the first decorative gardens of Moscow, in which the fancy plants were complemented by "water cannons" (fountains), for which springs gave water. A small vegetable garden adjoined the garden.
4. Krutitskoe farmstead passed through various stages of development - from prosperity to ruin.
5. In 1737, the Trinity fire raging in the capital did not spare Krutitsy. According to some reports, the cathedral Uspensky church, the Krutitsky teremok and some other buildings were badly damaged in its fire. Because of the damage to the tower, its tile roof was replaced with an iron one, the injured faces of the saints were whitened with lime, and one of the passages in the holy gates was laid.In such a disfigured form, the tower was located until the restoration in 1868, when the city government ordered to give it an original look.
6. The current "new" building of the Assumption Cathedral has two floors. Lower tier with a warm temple of St. The Apostles Peter and Paul was built in 1667–1689. and consecrated on June 29, 1699. According to some reports, the consecration was performed by Patriarch Joachim. Construction work was carried out under the Metropolitan of Varsonophia (Chertkov), buried in the southern part of the lower church. The upper (summer) church with the main Assumption throne was built in 1700. The chapel of St. Sergius, hegumen of Radonezh, was built in 1895.
8. The Assumption Cathedral has a height of 29 meters from the ground to the under-cross apple and is completed with the traditional five-domes, symbolizing the image of our Lord Jesus Christ, surrounded by four evangelists. It is built of red brick and is the largest structure of the Krutitsky ensemble. A covered staircase on the pillars leads to the entrance to the courtyard. An interesting feature of the temple is that the onion domes are also made of brick.
9. One of the most interesting buildings on the grounds of the farmstead is the Gate Terem, decorated with elegant tiles and openwork stone carvings.
10. During the construction of the tower, approximately 1,500–2,000 tiles were spent.
eleven.The Krutitsy Teremok and covered passages leading from the Metropolitan's chambers to the main Assumption Cathedral were built in 1693-94.
12. Holy Gates.
15. The holy gates were decorated with fresco images of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Savior and some saints. Now their condition is extremely sad, as well as the chambers in general.
17. Moscow is actively promoting the construction of 200 temples. It is clear that this program has certain goals and interests. And there is money for construction. But why is this replica needed, when the history of several centuries disappears before our eyes?
18. The Metropolitan's Chamber (the palace of the Krutitsky Metropolitans) - a two-storey brick building with a size of 27.25 x 12.35 m. - was built in 1655. The thickness of the walls of the first floor reaches 120 cm.
19. A graceful porch restored in the 20th century adjoins the southern facade of the building. On the first floor, obviously, there were economic and other service premises, on the second - parade and residential.
21. Children's playground next to the farmstead.
23. During the Patriotic War of 1812, Krutitsy, like much of Moscow, suffered greatly from fire. The Upper Assumption Church was severely damaged: the roof burned out, the iconostasis was completely destroyed.For five years, the temple was left uncovered, and only in 1817 a wooden roof was built over it. Got and Peter and Paul's temple. He was desecrated by the French enemy in such a way that it required a new consecration on January 13, 1813. Ten years later, on May 17, 1823, the Upper Assumption Church was renewed and consecrated. Her old wall painting has disappeared without a trace.
The revolutionary events of October 1917 and the years that followed did not, of course, help preserve the monuments of the Krutitsy monastery.
24. Assumption Cathedral was deprived of crosses on chapters, iconographic images on the walls were badly damaged, and the plaster was completely crumbled in places. Transitions connecting the Metropolitan Palace with the Assumption Cathedral, propped up by wooden rafters, apparently because of the danger of the collapse of the walls.
25. In 1947, by resolution of the Committee on Architectural Affairs under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the drafting of the restoration of the Krutitsky Palace began. This restoration work was headed by an outstanding figure of Russian culture, Peter Dmitrievich Baranovsky.
However, despite the restoration, the church life of Krutits froze.This went on for decades, one after another, the "tenants" took turns.
26. It is known for certain that after Stalin’s death in 1953 during the day in Krutitsky casemates, his assistant LP Beria was kept in custody.
Since 1991, a significant part of the premises of the farmstead has gradually returned to the Russian Orthodox Church.
With the blessing of Patriarch Alexy, the status of the patriarch was granted to the farmstead.
27. Archpriest Valentin Chaplin, who had been transferred to Krutitsy on March 15, 1992, was appointed the first rector of the farmstead.
Since 1992, construction and restoration work began.
28. In 2003–2004 the domes of the Assumption Cathedral were covered with copper, and the old crosses, installed in the middle of the twentieth century by P. D. Baranovsky, were replaced by new ones, covered with gilding. At the same time, the civil buildings of the compound were renovated - houses number 11 and 13 on Krutitskaya Street.
29. In 2007, many restoration and improvement works were carried out in the compound. The restoration of the upper church of the Assumption Cathedral was in full swing, the hipped porch was tremontized and the roof of the steep transitions was restored. Already in August 2007, the first services were held in the upper church.Also, work was carried out on gardening the territory of the farmstead, new lanterns and benches were installed.
30. In 2008, a 19th-century cobblestone pavement was restored, covering a large part of the estate, including near the temple, which is the only old cobblestone pavement that has survived in Moscow to this day.