How to extract oil and gas in Siberia
Photos and text
If you go to the tundra on the edge of the Earth, you can feel the full power of nature: it seems that White Nothing is around you (if you go Green in the summer). More specifically? 340 kilometers north of Novy Urengoy. Tazovsky village (the closest stronghold of civilization) is as much as 136 kilometers.
The weather in these places is severe. In winter - the arctic cold, and in summer - scorching heat and annoying midges-gnosis. In addition, strong winds blow. The local population - the Nenets - are engaged in reindeer herding. In general, wildlife. However, geologists found oil here, and a corner of civilization appeared - the East Messoyakhsky field.
The infrastructure of the field was built over three years using advanced deposit development technologies. Currently, fishing is one of the most difficult, interesting, difficult to access and technologically advanced. The northernmost of the oil on Russian land.
A little story about oil and gas production in Siberia
This unique project brought together the efforts and resources of the two largest oil companies - Gazprom Neft and Rosneft.
In the first half of the twentieth century, no one assumed the presence of oil and gas in Siberia. The main place of oil production at that time was the area near Baku. The first who suggested the presence of oil to the east of the Volga and admitted the likelihood of successful searches in the area of the West Siberian Lowland was academician Ivan Gubkin. His efforts were organized search work, which confirmed the assumptions of the academician.
Already in 1948, the Minister of Geology of the Soviet Union, Ilya Malyshev, approved the decision to start exploration in Western Siberia. After the storming of the Far North in 1964, new deposits were discovered: the legendary Samotlor and many others, all with vast reserves of minerals: Urengoi, Nadym, Yamburg ...
But the oilmen did not go too far to the north. The problem was not even the lack of technologies necessary for the efficient extraction of valuable raw materials. It was different:there were no ways to transport raw materials to the consumerBecause there were no roads or pipelines in the arctic tundra. Building transport communications from scratch is an incredibly expensive business, so the development of Arctic oil deposits was postponed for the future, limiting itself to exploration.
The hour of the polar deposits of Yamal has struck with the beginning of the new millennium, when the volume of production in the West Siberian fields began to decline steadily.
In 2010, the state declared its interest in development. The integrated development program of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District and the North of the Krasnoyarsk Territory until 2020, issued by the Ministry of Energy of Russia, gave birth to several new oil and gas projects, among them the Messoyakhi project. In 2013, a concept was developed for the development of the East Messoyakhskoye field, and key infrastructure facilities were designed. And in 2014, large-scale construction began.
1. The field is in conditions of almost complete autonomy. The main transport is a helicopter. In winter, temporary roads open. For the winter season hundreds of thousands of tons of cargo are transported for fishing. People on Messoyakhu are delivered mostly by air.
2. Under the snow you can see the channels and the old river beds. Lakes can be recognized by large white fields.
3. But about half of the route beneath us floats a boundless white space, only sometimes it is cut through the lines of oil pipelines or zigzags of winter roads.
4. Landing! Unloading.
five.On Messoyakha (however, this applies to all fields and drilling platforms), the strictest safety rules and prohibition have been established. Every person arriving at the fishery, regardless of status, undergoes a search, a basic health check and an alcotest. Discipline should be iron. On such remote sitesit is easier to initially prevent injuries than to treat an employee or take them to the mainland.
6. The field has only 28 clear days a year.
7. And hereCentral collection point for oil - DSP. The raw materials here come through pipelines from the well bushes. Naturally, all communications are on the surface. In the permafrost can not bury anything.
8. The central collection point for oil is a huge “plant” where oil from wells is being cleaned and prepared.Clickable:
9. At night, the DSP looks even more spectacular than during the day.
10. In this “squiggle” is considered the oil that has passed through it.
11. Block heating oil.Messoyakha oil- viscous and cold, the reservoir temperature is about + 16 ° С. The first tributaries were generally in the form of jelly, the color and consistency of boiled condensed milk. So that you can do something with oil, it is heated.The burners are fed with associated gas.
12. Ten-thousand tanks for marketable oil.
13. Pumps for pumping finished commercial oil. Productivity - 300 cubes per hour.
14. Naturally, all equipment is in explosion-proof enclosures.
15. Fiery sunset. A sign about the connection of the red night sky and strong wind on the following day has proved itself in full. By morning on Messoyakha there was a strong snowstorm. Signs - they are signs in the Arctic!
16. These are technological networks, according to them the raw materials are moved between the objects of oil preparation. The total length of these pipes is about 116 kilometers!
17. It is believed that oil is a black oily liquid. In fact, “black gold” can be brown, cherry, green, yellow and even transparent. The main factor that determines the color of the oil - component composition. Dye are resins and asphaltenes.
Each oil is unique, because it is a mixture of individual hydrocarbons and other compounds, the percentage of which may vary depending on the terrain, its depth, characteristics of formation of the reservoir, etc.Usually this is the case: the more in the light fraction oil, the lighter it is. The photograph shows samples of oil produced in the Eastern Messoyakha. Orange is rich in gasoline-kerosene fraction and, as a result, has a lower density than, say, brown or black oil. This "fresh" is mined at a depth of about 3 kilometers!
18. With the DSP, the finished product oil through the 98-km pressure pipeline goes to the delivery point at a speed of 2.5 km / h, from there it enters the Zapolyarye-Purpe pipeline, and then it is sent to consumers. Capacity - 6 million tons per year. In order to avoid thawing of permafrost arctic soils, the pipe was placed on supports. See the plot that rises above the tundra? This arch is made on the site of traditional deer paths so that technology does not introduce the native inhabitants of the tundra to stress.
19. According to such a pile principle all facilities on Messoyakha are built. Only one driving of pile fields, leveling and lifting the ground took the developers of the field almost a year and a half. The filling level reached 8 meters - such a layer cake to protect the permafrost from thawing.
20.And now we will look at the most northern mainland gas turbine power station in Russia. Hulk weighing several thousand tons, too, is on stilts!
21. Gas station section - here gas is being prepared (pressure increase) for turbines. The magnitude of the gas turbine complex - 84 MW, this would be enough to provide energy, for example, Salekhard.
22. The polar power plant consists of 73 facilities, the main of which are six gas turbine units with a capacity of 14 MW each. itgas turbine.
23. In the photo - the administrative complex. Workers work here until late - the windows are lit all night.
24. The weather changes every two hours. Sweeps. But drivers are well aware of this “milk”. The car park is huge, the cars are the most different. But you can be sure: in each of them, both the driver and the passengers will be fastened. Otherwise nothing: the north does not forgive mistakes.
25. Trekol - a great thing to ride in the snow in the tundra. In the north, bad people do not take root. For example, we stopped to take pictures of White Nothing, and a passing car slowed down: is everything OK? On another it is impossible. Especially on winter roads.
26. The life and lifestyle of the local population require a separate story.
According to the Russian classification, according to the national classification, according to the national classification, according to the national classification, they are considered unique. Recoverable reserves in the C1 + C2 category amount to 485 million tons of oil and condensate, 194 billion cubic meters of gas.
But you still need to get to black gold.. The depth of the main oil-bearing stratum on Messoyakha is about 800 meters. Therefore, the vertical wells here is one of the shortest in Russia. But its horizontal extent is about 1 000 meters. In order to extract oil as efficiently as possible under these conditions, fishbones (from the English fish bone - “fish bone”) - wells with several branches from the horizontal wellbore are built at Messoyah
Let's see,how drilling is done in the country's northernmost continental oil fieldwhat technologies are used and in what conditions people work.
27. This is a new drill. I was there a day before commissioning, now she is already at work.
28. Workplace driller. From here he manages the rise of the drill pipe, the speed of drilling, the flow of the pumps, and monitors the production parameters.Today there are 220 operating wells at Messoyakha, 110 more will be put into operation by the end of the year. There are 13 drilling rigs in operation.
29. Eastern Messoyakha- a platform for the implementation of non-standard methods of geological exploration and drilling, allowing to work effectively with hard-to-recover reserves of the mainland Arctic. In order to increase the oil recovery factor, pilot-industrial work on polymer flooding is carried out here, hydraulic fracturing operations, high-tech multilateral wells are being built.
30. It was at Messoyakha that for the first time in the perimeter of Gazprom Neft, mass drilling was started using fishbone technology (in translation - “fish bone”).
31. Back to the surface. Brand new drilling rig.
32. Each team at the rig bears its name. This is where the "Polar Owls" work.
33. And here the White Tigers "settled".
34. This is already operating drilling.
35. This is what a drill bit looks like. This is one of the main tools for rock destruction during well construction.
36. The drilling rig is mounted on rails and can move. It drills a whole cluster of wells located on the same line. In addition, several wells can be drilled from one wellhead,make branches, side trunks. By the way, this is how the “fish bone” technology was implemented at Messoyakha.
37. The buildup of the drill string.
38. The work of the rider on the tower itself is associated with a certain risk. This is a trolley for evacuation. Samospas.
39. The drive and its suspension.
40. Typical landscape Messoyakhi. Drilling and deer. Nobody bothers anyone.
41. Drilling operations are carried out in difficult weather conditions: winds on Messoyakha rarely stop. In winter it is a real test.
42. As a result of an active exploration program in the West Messoyakha block, in 2017, a new reservoir was discovered with an industrial flow of oil. In 2018, four wells of the old foundation will be tested in the west, and drilling of a new exploration well will begin.
The photo - exploration tower in the tundra.
43. Drilling rigs at night resemble Christmas trees with illumination. If we consider what deposits of "gifts" are stored under them, the comparison is more than appropriate. And so - look at the picture and make a wish: the season in this case does not matter! See you, Messoyaha!