Diagnosis of hyperplasia of the glandular epithelium and treatment methods
What is hyperplasia?
Uterine hyperplasia has several names. In some cases, this disease is called hyperplasia of the glandular epithelium. Sometimes doctors write the diagnosis of "myoma." But the most correct designation of this disorder is endometrial hyperplasia. In any case, requires qualified treatment of these conditions.
The internal cavity of the female reproductive organ consists of the endometrium. It in turn consists of glandular epithelium and connective tissue. In the initial phases of the menstrual cycle, the epithelium walls thicken to create a comfortable environment for the implantation of the embryo. If this does not occur, the outer layer of the inner uterus is separated along with the blood vessels, and menstruation occurs.
Thus, the thickness of the endometrium in different phases of the cycle differs by several millimeters.Two types of hormones regulate this process - progesterones and estrogens. Before ovulation, estrogen is responsible for increasing the epithelium, and then progesterone stops its growth.
If, due to various reasons, hormonal imbalance occurs, a gradual growth and increase in the endometrium, which is pathological, is diagnosed. It can cover the entire cavity of the uterus, or wear a focal character. Such a violation is called "hyperplasia." It affects the general state of women's health and has a variety of symptoms.
The main thing that needs to be remembered is that any change on the histological level, to which the disease belongs, requires constant medical supervision. If the correct treatment is not carried out, there is a threat of various complications, which include uterine bleeding, infertility, pathological pregnancy, miscarriages and malignant neoplasms.
What caused the disease?
Before considering the symptoms of a disease, you need to determine who is at risk. In fact, myoma is a disease that can be diagnosed in women of different ages.But most often it affects the fair sex after 40 years in the period before menopause and during the onset of menopause. It's all about the unstable hormonal background at that age.
The second common reason is the use of hormones that contain estrogen, and their composition does not include progesterone. Scientists today believe that oral contraceptives that are popular in our time, reduce the risk of endometrial abnormalities, because they contain two types of hormones at the same time.
In addition to these, there are other prerequisites that lead to the fact that fibroids develop. These include overweight in women and other related diseases. Polycystic ovaries can cause hyperplasia, since this condition also significantly affects hormonal levels.
Other adverse factors include poor ecology, incompetent treatment of women's diseases and the lack of successful pregnancies and births throughout life.
Symptoms of uterine hyperplasia
Myoma and other pathological conditions of the endometrium may have different symptoms.
Many women who have been diagnosed with "myoma", state an increase in the period of menstruation. If earlier monthly lasted 4 days, until after the proliferation of epithelium in the uterus, the duration of menstruation may be 2 - 3 days longer. Also, hyperplasia is characterized by the appearance of blood clots in the discharge.
It should be remembered that any change in the nature of menstruation is abnormal and requires consultation with the doctor, who will prescribe appropriate treatment, aimed not only at combating the disease, but also at relieving pain syndrome.
DeutA symptom is the occurrence of pain during menstruation, which was not previously observed. They are especially pronounced in the first two days of menstruation. Any pain that is difficult to tolerate, from which you must take painkillers, should alert the woman.Such a condition may be a sign of polycystic and other hormonal disorders, as a result of which fibroids develop.
There may be bloody discharge in between months. In women after 45 years of age during menopause, bleeding after 4-6 months of complete absence of menstruation is a dangerous sign. During this period, it is especially important to be attentive to the state of your own health and to monitor all changes in the body about which the attending gynecologist should be notified.
Discomfort in the process or after intercourse are also a sign of pathological growth of the endometrium. There may be nagging or aching pain in the lower abdomen. In some cases, cervical mucus can have bloody inclusions. In this case, treatment with hormone preparations is necessary.
You should also discuss the problem with a partner in order to further choose the optimal intensity, duration of sexual intercourse, as well as comfortable postures that do not cause unpleasant sensations.
How to make an accurate diagnosis?
Treatment of hyperplasia should begin immediately after an accurate diagnosis has been made. This is usually accomplished by several methods, which include:
- standard gynecological examination;
- diagnostic curettage;
- ultrasound procedure.
Usually, when the first symptoms of hyperplasia appeared, the woman turns to a gynecologist. Myoma involves an increase in the walls of the uterus and small bloody discharge. With the help of a special mirror during a pelvic examination, the doctor examines the condition of the vaginal walls and the outer part of the cervix. This procedure allows you to identify such a violation as cervical hyperplasia, as well as take a cytological smear to exclude cervical cancer. If the doctor suspects endometrial pathology, he may refer the woman to other studies.
This procedure is an extension of the cervix to introduce special equipment into the cavity of the genital organ, which displays an image of the internal cavity of the uterus on the screen. This method allows to assess the state of the epithelium and to conclude that there is hyperplasia.
Often, hysteroscopy is performed along with diagnostic curettage of the uterus.Such a procedure is carried out with the aim of a detailed study of the state of the cavity of the reproductive organ. The materials that remain after the procedure are always subjected to cytological analysis, which is able to detect pathological changes in the epithelium cells.
Ultrasound examination of the uterus is performed to finally diagnose myoma. Such an examination is aimed at assessing the shape, size, position of the uterus and appendages inside the female body. It allows you to accurately assess the thickness of the endometrium and the state of the epithelium in order to prescribe the correct treatment in case of confirmation of the diagnosis.
Treatment of uterine hyperplasia
Uterine hyperplasia is a condition that precedes cancer. It is for this reason that it is so important to pass all examinations and carry out treatment in a timely manner.Many women believe that when a diagnosis of “myoma” is indicated in the medical record, it results in the removal of an organ. But this opinion is wrong. If the disease is detected in time, then drug treatment helps to completely stop its development.
This problem can be solved by a gynecologist-endocrinologist.A woman must pass a blood test for the content of sex hormones. After that, the doctor prescribes drugs that contain progesterone, which stops the growth of the epithelium.
Today, the following drugs are popular:
- Medroxyprogesterone Acetate;
- Megestrol acetate.
In some cases, hormone therapy helps not only to stop the progression of the disease, to remove its symptoms, but also to completely cure it. To do this, you must continuously take drugs containing progesterone for 5-6 months under the constant supervision of a doctor. There are many examples of complete recovery while preserving the childbearing function.
If the procedure of curettage of the uterus and the histological analysis of the collected material showed the presence of atypical cells that may soon be reborn into malignant, an operation is initiated hysterectomy - removal of the uterus. Of course, such a surgery permanently changes the life of a woman. She loses the ability to conceive and give birth to a child. For this reason, it is rarely prescribed to young women.
Before removing the uterus, it is necessary to weigh the pros and cons in order to objectively assess the need for surgery and its consequences. But in any case, it is better to perform a hysterectomy than in a few years to cure an oncological disease, because in neither case can it be a question of performing the genital function. The main task at this stage of the disease is to preserve the general state of health and the life of a woman.
Uterine hyperplasia is a disorder that is characterized by a pathological change in the epithelium of the reproductive organ. If the disease was detected in a timely manner, modern methods of medicine help to completely cure it with the help of hormone therapy.
In more severe cases, surgery is necessary to remove the uterus. Launched forms of hyperplasia may degenerate into cancer tumors.