Chronicle of attempts on Stalin.
Several major attempts were made on Stalin, none of which led to the murder or even the wounds of the leader - his safety and security were at a very high level. During the years of Stalin's rule, information on these issues was the strictest state secret and there was even a conviction that no one ever attempted to kill the leader ...
It is worth noting that Stalin himself was terribly afraid of his death, and on this basis by the end of his life earned a heavy paranoia: he did not trust almost anyone, was constantly reinsured and suspected many of conspiracies against himself.
On November 16, 1931, Ogarev, a white officer and secret British intelligence officer who worked through the Russian All-Russian Union of Independent States and the oil section of the Torgprom, tried to shoot at Stalin. He accidentally met I. V. Stalin on Ilyinka Street near 5/2 and tried to snatch a revolver.
The officer of the OGPU, who was watching him, prevented the attempt. After this incident on the note of the deputy.Chairman of the OGPU Akulov about the incident was imposed resolution: "Members of the Politburo. Walking around on t. Stalin in Moscow must be stopped. V. Molotov ”(also signed by Kaganovich, Kalinin, Kuibyshev).
As it became known lately in the early 1930s, a rather real conspiracy was formed against Stalin with the participation of Enukidze, Peterson, the military, which was called the “Tangle case”. As part of this conspiracy, the arrest or murder of Stalin and his inner circle was planned. All the main defendants in this case were shot, the case materials are to a large extent classified so far.
There are references in the literature that in January 1935 a representative of the count family Orlova-Pavlova shot at Stalin in the Kremlin library. Stalin was not injured, and the shooter was arrested and soon shot. At the same time, Enukidze and Peterson were removed from their posts. This attempt is also attributed to the Tangle business.
The attempt of Danilov
A French intelligence report was found in the documents of the French special archive, which reported that on March 11, 1938, an assassination attempt was made on Stalin during a walk in the Kremlin.Lieutenant Danilov, a soldier of the Tula garrison, dressed in the uniform of an officer of the GPU troops, went to the Kremlin with forged documents and tried to kill Stalin. During the interrogation, Danilov admitted that he was a secret terrorist organization, the purpose of the attempt was to avenge Marshal Tukhachevsky.
The secret sabotage operation codenamed "The Bear" was prepared with the participation of the head of the Far Eastern Administration of the NKVD, Heinrich Samoilovich Lyushkov, who fled to the Japanese in 1938. The goal was to destroy Stalin in one of his residences. The performers were supposed to be six White Guards from the Union of Russian Patriots.
In Matsesta, Stalin took healing baths and remained in the room alone during the procedures. Here he should have been killed. However, in early 1939, during the crossing of the Turkish-Soviet border near the village of Borchka, a machine-gun fire was opened at the terrorist group, as a result of which three were killed, the rest fled. Presumably, the plans of the terrorists said the Soviet agent Leo, who worked in Manzhou-Guo.
May 1, 1939
The second attempt by the Japanese special services to kill Stalin also dates back to 1939.The terrorists intended to carry a time bomb into the Mausoleum, where it was supposed to explode on the morning of the first of May, destroying the Soviet leadership standing on the Mausoleum’s platform. But the NKVD was again informed, apparently by the same source of Leo. These operations of the Japanese special services are written in Khiyama Yoshiaki’s Japanese book “Japanese plans for an assassination attempt on Stalin.”
On this day, on the belt of the People's Commissar of Defense Voroshilov there was a revolver in a holster, which was never before or later, according to the book “Clew around Stalin”.
The Attempt of Dmitriev
On November 6, 1942, a deserter Savely Dmitriev, hiding in Lobnoe place of Red Square, opened fire on a government car leaving the Spassky Gate of the Kremlin.
After he fired several shots, the terrorist was disarmed by the guards, no one was hurt. It is believed that Dmitriev took Mikoyan's car for Stalin's car. According to the existing versions: Dmitriev wanted revenge, or he was mentally ill.
Almost 8 years spent Dmitriev in the prisons of the NKVD, where they tried to find out the motives of the assassination. And at the end of August 1950, a small note was placed in the central newspapers of the USSR: “The terrorist Dmitriev wasdetained on Red Square. On August 25, 1950, he was shot by the verdict of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court. ”
The true motives of this attempt and the results of the investigation are not yet known. However, some printed details show that Dmitriev attempted precisely on Stalin.
In 1943, Germany designed the operation to eliminate Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill during the Tehran Conference, which was held in November 1943. However, Soviet intelligence was informed about the attempted assassination from several sources and thwarted the plans of German intelligence.
Pavel Sudoplatov wrote:
“Medvedev and Kuznetsov have established that Skorzeny is preparing a group of attacks on the American and Soviet embassies in Tehran, where in 1943 the first conference of the Big Three was to take place. A group of militants Skorzeny trained near Vinnitsa, where there was a partisan detachment of Medvedev.
Kuznetsov established friendly relations with the German secret service officer Oster. Having lasted to Kuznetsov, Oster offered to pay him off with Iranian carpets, which he intended to bring to Vinnitsa from a business trip to Tehran.This message, immediately transmitted to Moscow, coincided with information from other sources and helped us prevent the actions in Tehran against the “big three”.
Nikolai Kuznetsov was a staff member of Soviet intelligence and began serving in it in 1938. His purely Aryan appearance, marvelous ability to reincarnate, brilliant knowledge of German and Germany could not go unnoticed. He was prepared for a long time and thrown to the rear of the Germans only in 1942. Kuznetsov perfectly played the role of Wehrmacht Chief Lieutenant Paul Siebert.
"Tsepellin" and Shilo - Tavrin - Politov
The organization “Zeppelin” (German Unternehmen Zeppelin) is a reconnaissance and sabotage body of Hitler's Germany, created in March 1942 in the structure of the 6th Administration of the RSHA (SD-Abroad) to work in the Soviet rear. The most famous of his operations is the attempt to assassinate Stalin in 1944. The assault was prepared using the prisoner of war Peter Shilo (German pseudonym Tavrin, Politov).
The Germans prepared the operation very carefully. Politov produced several sets of Soviet documents, of which the main one was a certificate addressed to the head of the Smersh Department of the 39th Army, Major Tavrin. His appearance in Moscow was explained by the release after injury and treatment at the hospital.
Peter Tavrin (right) and one of the leaders of Zeppelin, Henz Grefe.
To imitate the healed wounds, experienced German surgeons performed plastic surgery - several incisions and former sutures. Tavrina was equipped with Soviet awards, of which, they believed, the main were the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal executed in captivity by the Guard Major-General Shepetov I.M. They also provided such details as copies of the Pravda and Izvestia newspapers, essays on exploits, decrees on awarding and portrait of the heroic major Tavrin.
The scenario of the terrorist act, according to the version of the investigation, suggested the following. Tavrin with documents of Major SMERSH, Hero of the Soviet Union, war invalid penetrates Moscow territory, settles there in a private apartment, communicates with the leaders of the anti-Soviet organization Union of Russian Officers, General Zagladin from the personnel management of the People's Commissariat of Defense and Major Palkin from the staff of the reserve officer regiment .
Together, they are looking for an opportunity for Tavrin to penetrate any solemn meeting in the Kremlin, which Stalin would have attended. There, the agent was supposed to shoot at the leader with a poisoned bullet.The death of Stalin would be, as expected, a signal for the landing of a large assault force on the outskirts of Moscow, which would seize the "demoralized Kremlin" and put in power the "Russian cabinet" led by General Vlasov.
In case Tavrin fails to penetrate the Kremlin, he had to ambush the car with Stalin and blow it up using a Panzerknak device (“gnawing armor”), capable of penetrating 45 mm thick armor, which was short-recoilless 30 mm caliber cannon.
Shells of this gun could pierce armor at a distance of 300 meters. The gun had a compact size attached by straps to the right hand.
A few weeks before the transfer of Tavrin across the front line, he was twice (as follows from the materials) personally instructed by General Vlasov and three times by the well-known fascist saboteur Otto Skorzeny.
From the very beginning it was assumed that Tavrin's operation should be carried out alone. But at the end of 1943 in Pskov, where the Zeppelin headquarters was located, he met his future wife, Lydia Shilova, and this circumstance made adjustments to the operation scenario.
Lydia worked as an accountant. Two weeks later they were married.After the wedding, Tavrina and his wife were sent to Riga, where he was hospitalized. Tavrina's wife received the name "Agent Adamchik." By the spring of 1944 the preparation of Tavrin was completed.
Subsequently, during the investigation, it was established that Lydia was completely unaware of the terrorist mission of Tavrin and was sure that he was not going to work for the Germans on Soviet territory.
Tavrin and his accomplice Shilov, after being transferred to the USSR, were quickly arrested by counterintelligence agencies, and the plans for the assassination failed.
The accident in Sochi
When traveling through the Riviera Bridge in Sochi on the night of August 25-26, 1931, a Buick car in which Stalin and Voroshilov were sitting collided with a truck. The guards opened fire, the truck driver disappeared. Neither Stalin nor Voroshilov suffered. The driver, as it turned out, was drunk; he had no intention to kill the leader.
September 23, 1931, Stalin rested in the country "Cold River" near Gagra. On the boat "Krasnaya Zvezda" Stalin went on a boat trip to Cape Pitsunda. On the way back at the approach to Gagram, the boat was fired from the shore with a rifle. Bullets passed by, no one was hurt.It turned out that the border post was not informed about the delay of the government boat (which occurred due to bad weather). The commander of the border guards Lavrov made three warning shots at an unidentified ship.
Bomb under the bridge
1933 (Georgia) - Joseph Stalin almost died due to an explosion of a bomb that was planted under a bridge near the Lashupse River. But Stalin escaped thanks to the foresight of the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, Lavrenti Beria, who at the time of the chief's car’s entrance advised to transfer to another car. Stalin heeded the advice, and the car in which he had driven before exploded while passing over the bridge and fell into the abyss.
1935 (Gori, Georgia) - Stalin came to his mother and to rest at home, but was forced to hurry off from there because the guards exposed the plot, which matured in the ranks of the "experienced" Georgian Bolsheviks. The Georgians believed that Stalin had betrayed the Lenin case and must be killed by any means at the first meeting.
The crash of the plane "Maxim Gorky"
On May 18, 1935, the ANT-20 Maxim Gorky aircraft collided with an I-5 plane piloted by Pilot Blagin, both cars fell to the ground, all crew members and passengers died.In the USSR, everything was written off as an accident and negligence during the tests.
However, there is a version that the catastrophe was an assassination attempt on Stalin and other leaders of the USSR, since there was a rumor that Stalin, Molotov, Kaganovich, Ordzhonikidze and others should fly in Maxim Gorky. In September 1935, the Warsaw newspaper Mech published an appeal by Nikolay Blagin in which he wrote that he was going to deliberately ram the plane in order to contribute to the fight against Bolshevism.
There are many versions explaining some of the unusual circumstances of Stalin’s death, often claiming that someone from his closest circle "helped" Stalin to die. However, it is only known that when Stalin suffered a stroke on March 1, the guards did not come to his aid for several hours. The doctors were subsequently also called long after, as the guards requested the approval of the members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, who were part of the “narrow leadership”.