Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

Text writer: Anna Yesterday

The sea and Aivazovsky for the past century and a half are synonymous. We say "Aivazovsky" - we represent the sea, and seeing the sunset or storm, sailboat or foaming surf, calm or sea breeze, we say: "Pure Aivazovsky!"

Do not know Aivazovsky difficult. But today "Arthiv" will show you Aivazovsky rare and little-known. Aivazovsky unexpected and unusual. Aivazovsky, whom you may not even immediately recognize. In short, Aivazovsky without the sea.

Winter landscape. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1880sThese are graphic self-portraits by Aivazovsky. Perhaps, here he is unrecognizable. And it looks more like not its own pictorial images (see below), but like a good friend of hiss, with whom he traveled around Italy in his youth — Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol. Self-portrait on the left - neither give nor take Gogol, composing "Dead Souls" at the table littered with drafts.

Even more interesting is the self portrait on the right. Why not with a palette and brushes, but with a violin? Because the violin for many years was Aivazovsky's faithful friend. No one remembered who presented it to 10-year-old Hovhannes, a boy from a large and poor family of Armenian immigrants in Feodosia. Of course, parents could not hire a teacher. But it is not needed. Hovhannes learned to play itinerant musicians at the Feodosia bazaar. His hearing was great. Aivazovsky could pick up on hearing any tune, any tune.

The novice artist brought the violin to St. Petersburg with him, playing “for the soul”. Often at a party, when Hovhannes made useful contacts and began to appear in the world, he was asked to play the violin. Possessing a sweet temper, Aivazovsky never refused. In the biography of the composer Mikhail Glinka, written by Vsevolod Ouspensky, there is such a fragment: “Once at the Puppeteer Glinka met with a student of the Academy of Arts Aivazovsky. He skillfully sang a wild Crimean song, sitting in Tatar style on the floor, swaying and holding a violin at his chin. Tatar tunes Aivazovsky really liked Glinka,from his youth his imagination attracted the east ... Two legends entered Lezginka over time, and the third - on the stage of Ratmir in the third act of the opera “Ruslan and Lyudmila”.

Aivazovsky will take the violin everywhere. On the ships of the Baltic squadron his game entertained the sailors, the violin sang to them about the warm seas and a better life. In St. Petersburg, when he first saw his future wife Yulia Grevs at a secular reception (she was only the governess of the master children), Aivazovsky did not dare to introduce himself - instead, he would take the violin again and tighten the serenade in Italian.

An interesting question: why does Aivazovsky not hold the violin on the chin in the figure, but hold it like a cello? Biographer Yulia Andreeva explains this peculiarity in the following way: “According to numerous testimonies of contemporaries, he kept the violin in the eastern manner, resting it on his left knee. That way he could play and sing at the same time. ”

Self-portrait of Ivan Aivazovsky, 1874And this self-portrait by Aivazovsky is just for comparison: unlike the not so well-known previous ones, he is probably familiar to the reader. But if at first Aivazovsky reminded Gogol, then on this, with the sleek sideburns, Pushkin.By the way, this was the opinion of Natalya Nikolaevna, the poet's wife. When the Pushkins in the exhibition at the Academy of Arts presented Aivazovsky, Natalya Nikolaevna kindly noticed that the artist very much reminds her of portraits of young Alexander Sergeyevich.

Petersburg Crossing the Neva. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1870sAt the first (and if we drop the legends, then the only) meeting, Pushkin asked Aivazovsky two questions. The first - when meeting more than predictable: where does the artist come from? But the second - unexpected and even somewhat familiar. Pushkin asked Aivazovsky if he, the southern man, was freezing in Petersburg? Pushkin would know how right he was. All winters at the Academy of Arts, young Hovhannes was truly catastrophically cold.

In the halls and classes walk drafts, teachers are wrapped in downy shawls back. A 16-year-old Hovhannes Aivazovsky, who was admitted to the class of Professor Maxim Vorobiev, has frisky fingers from the cold. He is chilly, wrapping himself up in a completely unheating, paint-stained jacket, all the time coughing.

Especially difficult at night. The blanket spent by moth does not allow to be warmed.All members stiffens chills, the tooth does not fall on the tooth, for some reason, especially cold ears. When the cold does not allow to fall asleep, student Aivazovsky remembers Theodosius and the warm sea.

Headquarters doctor Overlach scribbling reports to the President of the Academy Olenin about the unsatisfactory health of Hovhannes: “Academician Aivazovsky, was transferred several years to St. Petersburg from the southern region of Russia and it was from the Crimea, from the very time he was here that he felt unwell and many times already use I was in an academic infirmary, suffering, as before, and now, chest pain, dry cough, shortness of breath when climbing stairs and a strong heartbeat.

Is that why the “Crossing the Neva River”, a rare St. Petersburg landscape for Aivazovsky’s creativity, looks like it brings teeth from imaginary cold? It was written in 1877, the Academy was long gone, and the feeling of the penetrating cold of the Northern Palmyra remained. Giant ice floes rose up on the Neva. The Admiralty Needle emerges through the cold hazy colors of the purple sky. It's cold to tiny people in a wagon. Chilly, anxious - but also fun. And it seems so much new, unknown, interesting - there, in front, behind the veil of frosty air.

The betrayal of Judas. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1834The State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg carefully keeps Aivazovsky’s sketch “The Betrayal of Judas”. It is made on gray paper with whitewash and Italian pencil. In 1834, Aivazovsky was preparing a picture on a biblical theme on the instructions of the Academy. Hovhannes was by nature rather reserved, he loved to work alone and did not comprehend at all how his idol Karl Bryullov was able to write for any gathering of people.

Aivazovsky, on the contrary, preferred to work in solitude, so when presented with the Academy comrades "The Treachery of Judas", it turned out to be a complete surprise to them. Many simply could not believe that the 17-year-old provincial is only capable of such in the second year of study.

And then his detractors came up with an explanation. After all, Aivazovsky disappears all the time from collector and patron Alexei Romanovich Tomilov? And that Brulllov is in the meeting, and Poussin, and Rembrandt, and there is little else. Surely the crafty Hovhannes simply copied there a picture of some little-known European master in Russia and passed off as his own.

Fortunately for Aivazovsky, the president of the Academy of Arts, Alexei Nikolayevich Olenin, turned out to have a different opinion about “The Treachery of Judas”.Olenin was so impressed with the skill of Hovhannes that he honored him with high mercy - he invited him to stay with him at Priyutino's estate, where Pushkin and Krylov, Borovikovsky and Venetsianov, Kiprensky and the Bryullov brothers had been. Honor for novice academics unheard of.

Eastern scene. Coffee house at the Ortaköy Mosque in Constantinople. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1846By 1845, the 27-year-old Aivazovsky, whose seascapes are already thundering across Europe from Amsterdam to Rome, is paying homage to Russia as well. He receives the “Anna on the neck” (Order of St. Anna of the 3rd degree), the title of academician, 1500 acres of land in the Crimea for 99 years of use and the main thing is the official naval uniform. For his services to the Fatherland, the Naval Ministry appoints Aivazovsky as the first painter of the Main Naval Staff. Now Aivazovsky must pass into all Russian ports and on all ships, wherever he wishes to go. And in the spring of 1845, at the insistence of the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, the artist was included in the naval expedition of Admiral Litke to Turkey and Asia Minor.

By that time, Aivazovsky had already traveled all over Europe (there are more than 135 visas in his passport, and the customs officers are tired of adding new pages there), but have not yet visited the Ottoman lands.For the first time, he sees Chios and Patmos, Samos and Rhodes, Sinop and Smyrna, Anatolia and the Levant. And most of all he was impressed by Constantinople: “My voyage,” wrote Aivazovsky, “with his imperial highness, Konstantin Nikolayevich, was extremely pleasant and interesting, everywhere I managed to sketch sketches for paintings, especially in Constantinople, from which I admired. There is probably nothing more majestic in the world than this city, Naples and Venice are forgotten there. ”

"The coffee house at the Ortakuy Mosque" is one of the types of Constantinople written by Aivazovsky after this first trip. In general, Aivazovsky’s relations with Turkey are a long and difficult history. He will visit Turkey again and again. The Turkish rulers greatly appreciated the artist: in 1856, Sultan Abdul-Mejid I celebrated him with the Order of the 4th degree Nitshan Ali, and in 1881, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II with a diamond medal. But between these awards was the Russian-Turkish war of 1877, during which the shell of Aivazovsky’s house in Feodosia was partially destroyed by a shell. However, it is significant that the peace treaty between Turkey and Russia was signed in the hall decorated with paintings by Aivazovsky. Visiting Turkey, Aivazovsky was especially warm with the Armenians living in Turkey, who respectfully called him Ayvaz-efendi.And when, in the 1890s, the Turkish sultan made a monstrous massacre, in which thousands of Armenians would die, Aivazovsky would defiantly hurl Ottoman awards at sea, saying that he advised to do the same with his paintings.

"Coffee house at the Ortakuy Mosque" by Aivazovsky is an ideal image of Turkey. Perfect - because peaceful. Sitting relaxed on the embroidered pillows and immersed in contemplation, the Turks drink coffee, inhale hookah smoke, listen to unobtrusive melodies. Flowing molten air. Time flows between the fingers, like sand. No one is in a hurry - there is no need to hurry: everything necessary for the fullness of being is already concentrated in the present moment.

Windmills in the Ukrainian steppe at sunset. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1862It cannot be said that Aivazovsky in the landscape “Windmills in the Ukrainian steppe ...” is unrecognizable. The wheat field in the sunset rays is almost like the unsteady surface of the sea, and the mills are the same frigates: for some the wind inflates the sails, for others it rotates the blades. Where and, most importantly, when Aivazovsky could escape from the sea and become interested in the Ukrainian steppe?

Return from the wedding. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1891

Chumak on vacation.Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1885Maybe when for a short time I moved my family from Feodosia to Kharkov? And not idly transported, and hastily evacuated. In 1853, Turkey declared war on Russia, in March 1854 England and France joined it — the Crimean War began. In September, the enemy was already in Yalta. Aivazovsky had to urgently save his relatives - his wife, four daughters, the old mother. “With sincere regret,” the artist informed one of the correspondents, “we had to leave our dear Crimea, leaving all our fortune acquired by our works for fifteen years. In addition to my family, my mother for 70 years, I had to take with me all my relatives, we stopped in Kharkov, as the nearest city to the south and inexpensive for a modest life. ”

The biographer writes that Aivazovsky’s wife, Yulia Grevs, who had previously actively assisted her husband in Crimea in his archaeological excavations and ethnographic research, “tried to carry Aivazovsky into archeology or scenes of Little Russian life” at the new place. After all, Julia so wanted her husband and father to stay with the family longer. It did not work out: Aivazovsky rushed to besieged Sevastopol.For several days under bombardment, he wrote naval battles from nature, and only a special order of Vice-Admiral Kornilov forced the fearless artist to leave the theater of operations. Nevertheless, there are quite a few ethnographic-genre scenes and Ukrainian landscapes in the heritage of Aivazovsky: “Chumaks on Rest”, “Wedding in Ukraine”, “Winter Scene in Little Russia” and others.

Portrait of Senator Alexander Ivanovich Kaznacheyev, leader of the nobility of the Tauride province. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1848Portraits Aivazovsky left relatively few. But he wrote this gentleman more than once. However, it is not surprising: the artist considered Alexander Ivanovich Kaznacheyev "the second father". When Aivazovsky was still small, Kaznacheev served as the Theodosia mayor. In the late 1820s, complaints began to come to him more and more often: in the city, someone was naughty — painting walls and fences whitewashed with lime. The mayor went to inspect art. On the walls were figures of soldiers, sailors, and silhouettes of ships, induced by samovar coal — very, very likely. After some time, the city architect Koch told Kaznacheev that he had computed the author of these “graffiti”. It was the 11-year-old Hovhannes, the son of the bazaar chief Gevorg Gaivazovsky.

“You draw beautifully,” he agreed, having met with the “criminal,” the Treasurers, “but why on other people's fences ?!” However, he immediately understood: Aivazovsky is so poor that they cannot buy accessories for drawing to his son. And Kaznacheyev did it himself: instead of punishment, he presented Hovhannes with a pile of good paper and a box of paints.

Hovhannes began to visit the town governor’s house, became friends with his son Sasha. And when, in 1830, Kaznacheev became the governor of Tavria, he took Aivazovsky, who had become a family member, to Simferopol so that the boy could study at the gymnasium there, and three years later he made every effort to enlist the Imperial Academy of Arts.

When Aivazovsky, who grew up and became famous, will forever return to live in the Crimea, he will maintain friendly relations with Alexander Ivanovich. And even in a certain sense, she will imitate her “named father”, strenuously taking care of the poor and disadvantaged and establishing the “Shared Workshop” - an art school for local talented young people. And according to his own project and for personal funds, Aivazovsky will erect a fountain in honor of Kaznacheyev in Feodosia.

Caravan in the oasis. Egypt.Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1871November 17, 1869 the Suez Canal was opened for shipping. Laid across the Egyptian deserts, it connected the Mediterranean and the Red Sea and became a conditional border between Africa and Eurasia. The 52-year-old Aivazovsky could not skip such an event inquisitive and still greedy for impressions. He arrived in Egypt as part of the Russian delegation and became the first marine painter in the world to write the Suez Canal.

“Those paintings in which the main force is the light of the sun ... should be considered the best,” Aivazovsky was always convinced. And just the sun in Egypt was in abundance - just work. Palm trees, sands, pyramids, camels, distant desert horizons and the "Caravan in an oasis" - all this is left in the paintings of Aivazovsky.

And the artist left amusing memories of the first meeting of the Russian song and the Egyptian desert: “When the Russian ship entered the Suez Canal, the French ship running ahead of it ran aground, and the swimmers were forced to wait until it was removed. This stop lasted about five hours.

It was a beautiful moonlit night, giving some majestic beauty to the deserted shores of the ancient country of the pharaohs, torn away by the channel from the Asian shore.

To shorten the time, the passengers of the Russian steamer staged an improvised vocal concert: Mrs. Kireeva, having a beautiful voice, took over the duties of the singers, the slender choir picked up ...

And here, on the shores of Egypt, a song about “Mother Volga”, about “dark forest”, about “open field” sounded and rushed along the waves, silvered by the moon, shining brightly at the turn of two parts of the world ... ”

Catholicos Khrimyan in the vicinity of Echmiadzin. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1895

Portrait of the artist's brother Gabriela Ayvazian. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1883

Baptism of the Armenian people. Grigor the Illuminator (4th century). Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1892Perhaps someone will be new to find out that Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky was a true zealot of the Armenian Apostolic Church, one of the oldest, by the way, Christian churches. The Armenian Christian community was also in Feodosia, and the Synod was located in the “heart of Armenia” - the city of Echmiadzin.

Aivazovsky's older brother Sargis (Gabriel) became a monk, then an archbishop and an outstanding Armenian enlightener. For the artist himself, his religious affiliation was by no means a mere formality.He informed the Echmiadzin Synod about the most important events of his life, such as a wedding: “He married on August 15, 1848, Julia, daughter of Jacob Greves, an English Lutheran, but married in the Armenian church with the condition that my children are from this marriage will also be baptized in the Armenian holy font. "

When family life goes bad, Aivazovsky will have to seek permission for divorce in the same place.

In 1895, the high guest, Catholicos Khrimyan, the head of the Armenian Church, came to Aivazovsky in Feodosia. Aivazovsky drove him to Old Crimea, where he built a new one on the site of the destroyed churches and even wrote an altar image for her. At the gala dinner for 300 people in Feodosia, the Catholicos promised the artist: “I, Khrimyan Hayrik, have a cross in one hand, and the Bible in the other, I will pray for you and for my poor Armenian people.” In the same year, inspired by Aivazovsky, will write the painting “Catholicos Khrimyan in the Echmiadzin neighborhood”.

In five years, the 82-year-old Aivazovsky will not. An inscription in the Armenian language adorns his grave in the courtyard of an ancient temple: "Born to be mortal, I left behind an immortal memory."

Anna Nikitichna Burnazyan-Sarkizova, the second wife of I.K. Aivazovsky. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, 1882It would be unfair to the reader to finish our story about the paintings of Aivazovsky, where there is no sea, the fact of the artist’s death. Moreover, having touched many important biographical milestones, we never talked about love.

When Aivazovsky was 65 years old, he fell in love. And he fell in love just like a boy - at first sight and in the circumstances that were least likely to have romance. He rode in a carriage through the streets of Feodosia and crossed with a funeral procession, which included a young beautiful woman dragged into a black. The artist believed that in his native Theodosia he knew everyone by name, but he seemed to see her for the first time and didn’t even know who she was for the deceased — her daughter, sister, wife. Inquired: it turned out - a widow. 25 years. Name is Anna Sarkizova, nee Burnazyan.

The late husband left an estate to Anne with a marvelous garden and great wealth for the Crimea — a source of fresh water. She is well-off, self-sufficient woman, besides 40 years younger than Aivazovsky. But when the artist, trembling and not believing in the possible happiness, made her an offer, Sarkizova accepted it.

A year later, Aivazovsky confessed to a friend in a letter: “Last summer, I married a lady, an Armenian widow. Previously I was not acquainted with her, but I heard a great deal about her good name. I now live in peace and happiness. I have not lived with my first wife for 20 years and have not seen her for 14 years now. Five years ago, the Echmiadzin Synod and the Catholicos allowed me to divorce ... Only now I was very afraid to connect my life with a woman of another nation, so as not to shed tears. This happened by the grace of God, and I sincerely thank you for your congratulations. ”

17 years they will live in love and harmony. As in his youth, Aivazovsky will write a lot and is incredibly productive. And he will have time to show his beloved ocean: in the 10th year of marriage they will sail to America through Paris, and, according to legend, this beautiful couple will often be the only people on the ship who are not exposed to seasickness. While most of the passengers, hiding in cabins, waited for rocking and a storm, Aivazovsky and Anna serenely admired the expanses of the sea.

After the death of Aivazovsky, Anna for more than 40 years (and she will live to 88) will become a voluntary recluse: neither guests, nor interviews, much less attempts to arrange a personal life.There is something strong-willed and at the same time mysterious in the eyes of a woman whose face is half hidden by a gas veil, so similar to the translucent surface of water from the seascapes of her great husband, Ivan Aivazovsky.

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  • Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter

    Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter Aivazovsky without the sea. Unknown pictures of the great marine painter