A brief history of the Crimea from ancient times to the present day
Yesterday in Moscow, an agreement was signed on the inclusion of the Crimea into the Russian Federation. Here is a brief illustrative account of the history of this territory and its peoples.
In the first millennium BC Greek colonies began to appear in the Crimea, inhabited by Scythian and Taurian tribes. As a result of the Greek expansion in the 5th century BC. the territory of the peninsula became part of two states - the Chersonesos of the Tauride and Bosporus.
In the 3rd century BC. Scythians founded the city of Neapolis, or Scythian Naples (near modern Simferopol).
In the photo: the painting of the sarcophagus of the times of the Bosporus.
Starting from the 3rd century, various tribes invade the Crimea — the Goths, the Huns, the Bulgarians, the Turks — who destroyed the ancient cities. In the 8th century, the Crimea became Byzantine, part of the peninsula belongs to the Khazar Kaganate.
In the photo: the ruins of Chersonese.
From the 9th century, the Rus penetrated the Crimea, who eventually defeated the Khazars. In 988, Russian Prince Vladimir was baptized here.The territory of the peninsula, the former Khazar, became part of the Russian principality of Tmutarakan.
In the photo: V. Vasnetsov's fresco “The Baptism of St. Prince Vladimir”, Vladimir Cathedral in Kiev, 1890
The end of the Russian influence in the Crimea put Polovtsy, which appear here from the 12th century. The modern Crimean-Tatar language, from which there are many toponyms in Crimea (including Crimea, Ayu-Dag, Artek), is a descendant of the Polovtsian language.
In the photo: a picture by V. Vasnetsov “After the slaughter of Igor Svyatoslavich with Polovtsy”, 1880
In the 13th century, the Tatar-Mongols invaded Crimea, making it part of the Golden Horde. Under the agreement with her khans, Genoa receives some coastal cities of the Crimea, and the Genoese build new colonies.
In the photo: Genoese fortress in Sudak.
After the collapse of the Golden Horde in 1441, the remnants of the Mongols in the Crimea were Turkized. At this point, Crimea is divided between the steppe Crimean Khanate, the Byzantine mountain principality of Theodoro and the Genoese colonies on the south coast.
In the summer of 1475, Ottoman Turks landed a large landing force in the Crimea, capturing all Genoese fortresses and Byzantine cities. In 1478, the Crimean Khanate became a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire.
In the photo: the coin of the Crimean Khanate of the 15th century.
From the end of the 15th century, the Crimean Khanate made constant raids on the Russian state and Poland. The main purpose of the raids - the capture of slaves and their resale in the Turkish markets.
In the photo: Map of 1593. Crimea in the north borders with the Moscow principality, in the west - with the Great Lithuanian. Two Crimean Tatars are bear.
Crimean Khan Devlet I Gerai led constant wars with Ivan IV the Terrible, vainly seeking to restore the independence of Kazan and Astrakhan.
In May 1571, at the head of an army of 40 thousand horsemen, Khan burned Moscow, for which he received the nickname Takht Algan ("who took the throne"). During the raid on Muscovy, as many historians believe, several hundred thousand people died and 50,000 were captured. Ivan IV undertook, like Poland, to pay tribute to the Crimea annually. Payments continued until the end of the 17th century and finally stopped only during the reign of Peter I.
In the photo: Map of the year 1630. In addition to the steppe and foothill parts of the actual Crimea, the khanate occupied lands between the Danube and the Dnieper, the Azov Sea region and most of the present-day Krasnodar Territory of Russia.
The Russian-Turkish war of 1768-74 put an end to Ottoman domination,and according to the Kyuchuk-Kainarji peace treaty of 1774, Crimea gained independence from the Ottoman Empire and came under the protectorate of Russia. In 1783, the Crimea was incorporated into the Russian Empire.
In the photo: Stefano Torelli's painting “The victory of Catherine II over the Turks”.
After the annexation of the Crimea to Russia, Russian troops entered its territory, the city of Sevastopol was laid out near the ruins of ancient Chersonesos. The Crimean Khanate was abolished, but its top (over 300 clans) joined the Russian nobility and participated in the local self-government of the newly created Tauride region.
In the photo: M. Ivanov's painting, “Russian military camp in Crimea”, 1783
In 1787, Empress Catherine made her famous journey to the Crimea. In 1796, the region became part of Novorossiysk province, and in 1802 it was again allocated to an independent administrative unit. At the beginning of the 19th century, viticulture (Magarach) and shipbuilding (Sevastopol) developed in the Crimea, roads were laid. Under Prince Vorontsov, Yalta begins to settle down, and the southern coast of the Crimea turns into a resort.
In the photo: Fireworks in honor of the arrival of Catherine in the Crimea. Posted by: Jan Bogumił Plersch. OK. 1787
In 1853, the Crimean War broke out, in which Russia fought against three empires: French, British and Ottoman. The fighting unfolded not only on the western and southern borders of Russia, but even in the Barents Sea and Kamchatka. The hottest point was the Crimea.
The heroic defense of Sevastopol lasted almost a year, but in the end the Russians were forced to leave the city. During his defense, the famous Russian generals Kornilov and Nakhimov were killed.
In the photo: Painting V. Nesterenko “Defense of Sevastopol”, 1967
Especially for the participants of the defense of Sevastopol, the medal “For the Protection of Sevastopol” was instituted, which was the first medal in Russian history, which was issued not for capture or victory, but for defense.
Richard Woodville's The Attack of the Light Cavalry, 1897
“Balaclava Day” forever entered a black date in the military history of England. As a result of the cavalry's attack on the position of the Russians near Balaclava, it almost all fell. Many members of the English aristocracy remained on the battlefield, and the phrase “Attack of the light cavalry” became a common noun.
Having seized the Crimea, the Allies began to export local cultural and historical values to their museums.
In the photo: Samples of ancient art, exported by the British from Sevastopol.
As a result of the Crimean War, Russia lost influence in the Balkans and temporarily lost the Black Sea Fleet, but the Crimea remained Russian.
In the photo: Monument to the fallen Russian and French soldiers on the site of their common mass grave. Malakhov Kurgan, Sevastopol.
In 1874, Simferopol was connected to the Aleksandrovsky railway. The resort status of Crimea increased after the summer royal residence of Livadia Palace appeared in Livadia.
Population of Crimea in 1897:
Russian - 404 thousand
Tatars - 197 thousand
Ukrainians - 61 thousand
Jews - 55 thousand
Greeks - 18 thousand
In the photo: Livadia Palace.
During the Civil War, on the territory of Crimea several “white” and “red” governments replace each other, including the Soviet Socialist Republic of Tavrida, the Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic, etc.
In the photo: The team of the tank "General Drozdovskiy". September 1919
After the defeat of the White movement in October 1920, the Crimea was conquered by the Red Army and incorporated into the RSFSR as an autonomous Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic.In the captured Crimea, the Bolsheviks carried out mass terror, which resulted in, according to various sources, from 20 to 120 thousand people died.
In the fall of 1941, the German occupation of the Crimea began.
"Crimea must be freed from all strangers and settled by the Germans," Hitler declared at a meeting at the headquarters on July 19, 1941. At his suggestion, the Crimea turned into the imperial region of Gotenland (the country is ready). The center of the region, Simferopol, was renamed Gotsburg (city ready), and Sevastopol was named Theodorichshafen (the harbor of Theodoric, Ostrogoth King, who lived in 493-526). According to Himmler’s project, Crimea joined directly Germany.
In the photo: German soldiers are observing the Soviet positions from the trench on the Perekop isthmus.
The most fierce battles in the Crimea took place in the region of Sevastopol. The defense of the city lasted about eight months.
In the photo: the ruins of Sevastopol.
Near Sevastopol, for the first and last time, the Dora super-heavy 800-mm gun was used, which weighed more than 1000 tons. It was secretly delivered from Germany and secretly housed in a special shelter carved out of a rock mass in the Bakhchisarai area.The gun went into operation in early June and fired a total of fifty-three 7-ton projectiles.
In early July 1942, Soviet troops were forced to leave Sevastopol, and then the entire peninsula. Their losses amounted to more than 200 thousand people.
For the capture of Sevastopol, the commander of the 11th army, E. von Manstein, was promoted to field marshal.
In the photo: German soldiers in the destroyed Sevastopol.
In April 1944, the liberation of the Crimea began. The Crimean operation ended with the complete defeat of the 17th German Army, only the irretrievable losses of which during the fighting amounted to more than 120 thousand people.
In the photo: Partisans who participated in the liberation of the Crimea. The village of Simeiz on the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula. 1944 Author: Pavel Troshkin.
In May 1944, 183 thousand Tatars were deported from the Crimea. Basically - to Uzbekistan. Officially, the reasons for the deportation were the facts of collaborationism and cooperation of a large part of the Crimean Tatar population during the German occupation of the Crimea. 20 thousand Crimean Tatars (every third of the draft age) wore the form of the Third Reich.
Crimean Armenians, Bulgarians and Greeks were also deported.
1954 - Crimea transferred from Russia to Ukraine. Despite the fact that Sevastopol was withdrawn from the Crimea region in 1948, it received a special status in Russia, because of legal inaccuracies, it passed to Ukraine together with the Crimea.
The population of the Crimea in 1959: Russians - 858 thousand, Ukrainians - 268 thousand, Jews - 26 thousand
May 6, 1992 adopted the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea and introduced the post of president. According to the memory of the President of Ukraine Kravchuk in an interview given to him by the Ukrainian program, at that time official Kiev was considering the possibility of war with the Crimea.
In March 1995, by the decision of the central Ukrainian authorities, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea of 1992 was abolished, and the presidency in Crimea was abolished.
February 2014 - as a result of a coup in Kiev, in the Crimea there was a sharp increase in pro-Russian activity.
On February 27, 2014, the Supreme Council of Crimea appointed Sergey Aksyonov head of the Council of Ministers.
On March 11, 2014, the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council adopted the Declaration of Independence of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol.
March 17, 2014 as a result of the all-Crimean referendum,held on March 16, 2014, on the basis of the declaration of independence, the sovereign Republic of Crimea was proclaimed, including the city with the special status of Sevastopol.
The population of the Crimea according to the 2001 census: Russians - 1,450 thousand, Ukrainians - 577 thousand, Tatars - 245 thousand
On March 18, 2014, an agreement was signed between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on the acceptance of the Republic of Crimea into Russia. In accordance with the agreement, new subjects are formed within the Russian Federation - the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol.
In the photo: Crimeans celebrate the news of reunification with Russia.